Inclusive Excellence and Underrepresentation of Students of Color in Study Abroad

  • Karyn Sweeney
Keywords: Study abroad, Education abroad, Diversity efforts, Inclusive education

Abstract

Students of color continue to be underrepresented in terms of study abroad participation.  Inclusive excellence shifts diversity efforts from a focus on numbers to a comprehensive examination of systems and the ways in which the contributions of all community members are recognized, enhanced, and facilitated (Milem, Chang, & Antonio, 2005). The concept of inclusive excellence and the inclusive excellence scorecard are tools that can be utilized by international educators to examine the participation of students of color in study abroad within our own institutions, to evaluate efforts to resolve underrepresentation, and to inform best practices to support all students throughout the study abroad process. The inclusive excellence scorecard, modified for study abroad, examines access and equity, campus climate, diversity in the formal and informal curriculum, and learning and development. Until institutions have a clear understanding of the experiences, challenges, and opportunities on their own campuses and study abroad programs, they cannot effectively create change to better serve students of color and impact underrepresentation.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Karyn Sweeney

Karyn Sweeney is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Denver in the Higher Education program. Her dissertation research is focused on the study abroad experiences of African American undergraduate students; she is also interested in the role of inclusive excellence in study abroad to support underrepresented students. Karyn has been involved professionally in the field of international education for more than 15 years, most recently at the University of Denver. She has co-led service programs to El Salvador and Nicaragua, was a Peace Corps volunteer in Guatemala, and lived/studied abroad in Italy, Chile and South Africa.

References

Allen, W.R., Epps, E.G., Guillory, E.A., Suh, S.A., Bounous-Hammarth, M., & Stassen, M.L.A. (2002). Outsiders within: Race, gender, and faculty status in U.S. higher education. In W.A. Smith, P.G. Altbach, & K. Lomotey (Eds.), The racial crisis in American higher education: Continuing challenges for the twenty-first century (pp. 189-220). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Anderson, L.C. & Murray, C.S. (2005). Advising principles and strategies. In J.L. Brockington, W.W. Hoffa, and P.C. Martin (Eds.), NAFSA’s guide to education abroad for advisers and administrators (pp. 173-191). Washington, D.C.: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.

BaileyShea, C. (2009). Issues that affect American college students’ participation in study abroad (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest Dissertations and Theses. (Publication No. AAT 3395372).

Bauman, G.L., Bustillos, L.T., Bensimon, E.M., Brown II, M.C., & Bartee, R.D. (2005). Achieving equitable educational outcomes with all students: The institution’s roles and responsibilities. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Bolen, M.C. (Ed.). (2007). A Guide to Outcomes Assessment in Education Abroad. Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.

Carter, H.M. (1991). Minority access to international education. In Council on International Educational Exchange, Black students and overseas programs: Broadening the base of participation (pp. 9-20). Papers and speeches presented at the 43rd CIEE International Conference on Educational Exchange, Charleston, SC, November 7-9, 1990. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED340323.pdf

Chesler, M., Lewis, A., & Crowfoot, J. (2005). Challenging Racism in Higher Education. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishres, Inc.

Cole, J.B. (1991). Opening address of the 43rd international conference on educational exchange. In Council on International Educational Exchange, Black students and overseas programs: Broadening the base of participation (pp.1-8). Papers and speeches presented at the 43rd CIEE International Conference on Educational Exchange, Charleston, SC, November 7-9, 1990. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED340323.pdf

Comp, D. (2007). What we know about diversity in education abroad: State of the research. In C.A. Herrin, S. Dadzie, & S.A. MacDonald (Eds.), Proceedings for the Colloquium on Diversity in Education Abroad: How to Change the Picture (pp.48-52). Washington, D.C.: Academy for Educational Development.

Comp, D. (2008). U.S. heritage-seeking students discover minority communities in Western Europe. Journal of Studies in International Education 12 (29-37).

Day-Vines, N., Barker, J.M., & Exum, H.A. (1998, September). Impact of diasporic travel on ethnic identity development of African American college students. College Student Journal, 32(3), 463-471.

Doan, T.M. (2002). Asian American students: Study abroad participation, perspectives and experiences (Master’s thesis, University of Minnesota). Retrieved from http://old-lac.gps.umn.edu/ci/resources/planBPaper/complete%20paper.pdf

Evans, S.Y. (2009). African American women scholars and international research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper’s legacy of study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 18, 77-100.

Ganz, M.A. (1991). The Spelman experience: Encouraging and supporting minority students abroad. In Council on International Educational Exchange, Black students and overseas programs: Broadening the base of participation (pp.43-

. Papers and speeches presented at the 43rd CIEE International Conference on Educational Exchange, Charleston, SC, November 7-9, 1990. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED340323.pdf

Goodwin, C.D. & Nacht, M. (1988). Abroad and beyond: Patterns in American overseas education. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Grenier, D. (1997). Homegirl on the range. In E. Lee (Ed.), Go girl! The Black woman’s book of travel and adventure (pp. 199-204). Portland, OR: Eighth Mountain Press.

Guerrero, E. (2006). The road less traveled: Latina/o students and the impact of studying abroad. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Californa, Los Angeles, California). Retrieved from http://gradworks.umi.com/32/49/3249418.html

Harper, S.R. & Quaye, S.J. (2009). Beyond sameness, with engagement and outcomes for all: An introduction. In S.R. Harper and S.J. Quaye (Eds), Student engagement in higher education: Theoretical perspectives and practical approaches for diverse populations (pp. 1-15). New York, NY: Routledge.

Hoffa, W.W. & DePaul, S.C. (2010) Introduction. In W.W. Hoffa & S.C. DePaul (Eds.). A history of U.S. study abroad: 1965-Present (pp. 1-13). A special publication of Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad. Lancaster, PA: Frontiers.

Hurtado, S. (2002). Creating a climate of inclusion: Understanding Latina/o college students. In W.A. Smith, P.G. Altbach, & K. Lomotey (Eds.), The racial crisis in American higher education: Continuing challenges for the twenty-first century (pp. 121-135). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Institute of International Education (2012). Open doors 2012 report on international educational exchange: Profile of U.S. study abroad students, 2000/2001-2010/11. Retrieved from the Institute of International Education website: http://opendoors.iienetwork.org/

Jackson, M.J. (2005, Fall). Breaking the barriers to overseas study for students of color and minorities. IIE Networker, 16-18. Retrieved from Institute of International Education website: http://www.iienetwork.org

Jackson, M.J. (2006). Traveling shoes: Study abroad experiences of African American students participating in California State University international programs (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (AAT 3227519).

Jefferson, K.M. (1997). Genesis of the traveling spirit. In E. Lee (Ed.), Go girl! The Black woman’s book of travel and adventure (pp. 269-274). Portland, OR: Eighth Mountain Press.

Johnson, S., Rinehart, N., & Van Cleve, L. (2005). Program designs and strategies. In J.L. Brockington, W.W. Hoffa, and P.C. Martin (Eds.), NAFSA’s guide to education abroad for advisers and administrators (pp. 345-371). Washington, D.C.: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.

Kasravi, J. (2009). Factors influencing the decision to study abroad for students of color: Moving beyond the barriers (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota). Retrieved from http://purl.umn.edu/55058

Kuh, G.D. (2009). Afterword. In S.R. Harper and S.J. Quaye (Eds), Student engagement in higher education: Theoretical perspectives and practical approaches for diverse populations (pp. 313-18). New York, NY: Routledge.

Landau, J. & Moore, D.C. (2001). Towards reconciliation in the motherland: Race, class, nationality, gender, and the complexities of American student presence at the University of Ghana, Legon. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 7, 25-58. Retrieved from http://www.frontiersjournal.com/issues/vol7/

Lazard, D. (1997). Finding myself in the world. In E. Lee (Ed.), Go girl! The Black woman’s book of travel and adventure (pp. 221-225). Portland, OR: Eighth Mountain Press.

Lebold, C.J., Henry, A., Houston, P., Jackson, M., Scheibe, M., & Van Der Meid, S. (2005). Reaching underrepresented constituencies. In J.L. Brockington, W.W. Hoffa, and P.C. Martin (Eds.), NAFSA’s guide to education abroad for advisors and administrators (pp. 207-238). Washington, D.C.: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.

Lewis, H. (2009). A student’s guide to being happy in Argentina. Paoli, PA: The Elevator Group.

McClure, K.R., Szelenyi, K., Niehaus, E., Anderson, A.A., & Reed, J. (2010). “We just don’t have the possibility yet”: U.S. Latina/o narratives on study abroad. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 47(3), 367-386. doi: 10.2202/1949-6605.6506

Milem, J.F., Chang, M.J., & Antonio, A.L. (2005). Making diversity work on campus: A research-based perspective. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2011). Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by level of student, sex, attendance status, and race/ethnicity: Selected years, 1976 through 2010. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov

Ng, H. (2003). Sojourner’s truth: Intergenerational conflict and racial identity attitudes among second generation Asian American participants in college study abroad programs in Asia (Psy.D. Dissertation, Wright Institute). Available from ProQuest Dissertation and Theses database. (Publication No. AAT 3118441)

Norfles, N. (2003, January). Toward equal and equitable access: Obstacles and opportunities in international education. Paper presented at the Global Challenges and U.S. Higher Education Research Conference, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Retrieved from http://ducis.jhfc.duke.edu/archives/globalchallenges/pdf/norfles_paper.pdf

Obama, M. (2011, January 19). First Lady Michelle Obama’s 100,000 strong China study abroad initiative [video recording]. Retrieved from http://vimeo.com/18991021

Penn, E.B. & Tanner, J. (2009). Black students and international education: An assessment. Journal of Black Studies 40, 266-282. doi: 10.1177/0021934707311128

Picard, E., Bernardino, F., & Ehigiator, K. (2009). Global citizenship for all: Low minority participation in study abroad seeking strategies for success. In R. Lewis (Ed.), The handbook of practice and research in study abroad: Higher education and the quest for global citizenship (pp. 321-345). New York, NY: Routledge.

Raby, R. (2006, Fall). Community college study abroad: Making study abroad accessible to all students. IIE Networker, 39-40.

Redden, E. (2010, July 13). Academic outcomes of study abroad. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from www.insidehighered.com

Salisbury, M.H., Umbach, P.D., Paulsen, M.B., & Pascarella, E.T. (2009). Going global: Understanding the choice process of the intent to study abroad. Research in Higher Education 50, 119-143. Doi: 10.1007/s11162-008-9111-x.

Salisbury, M., Paulsen, M., & Pascarella, E. (2011). Why do All the Study Abroad Students Look Alike? Applying an Integrated Student Choice Model to Explore Differences in the Factors that Influence White and Minority Students’ Intent to Study Abroad. Research in Higher Education, 52(2), 123–150. doi:10.1007/s11162-010-9191-2

Stallman, E., Woodruff, E., Kasravi, J., & Comp, D. (2010). The diversification of the student profile. In W. W. Hoffa and S.C. DePaul (Eds.), A history of U.S. study abroad: 1965 present (pp.115-160). A special publication of Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad. Lancaster, PA: Frontiers.

Stearns, P.N. (2009). Educating global citizens in colleges and universities: Challenges and opportunities. New York, NY: Routledge.

Sutton, R. & Rubin, D. (n.d.). Selected GLOSSARI research findings pertaining to student diversity and education abroad. Retrieved from http://glossari.uga.edu

Talburt, S., & Stewart, M.A. (1999). What’s the subject of study abroad? Race, gender, and “living culture.” The Modern Language Journal 83, 163-175.

Tuitt, F. (2009). Summary. In M.F. Howard-Hamilton, C.L. Morelon-Quainoo, S.D. Johnson, R. Winkle-Wagner, and L. Santiague (Eds.), Standing on the outside looking in: Underrepresented students’ experiences in advanced-degree programs (pp. 203-226). Sterling, VA: Stylus.

U.S. Department of Education (2011). Federal TRIO programs. Retrieved from the U.S. Department of Education website: http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ope/trio/index.html

Van Der Meid, J.S. (2003). Asian Americans: Factors influencing the decision to study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 9, 71-110. Retrieved from http://www.frontiersjournal.com/issues/vol9/

Williams, D.A., Berger, J.B., & McClendon, S.A. (2005). Toward a model of inclusive excellence and change in postsecondary institutions. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Published
2013-08-15
How to Cite
Sweeney, K. (2013). Inclusive Excellence and Underrepresentation of Students of Color in Study Abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 23(1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v23i1.326
Section
Research Articles