The Impact of Study Abroad Experiences on Vocational Identity among College Students


  • Julia F. Kronholz Florida State University
  • Debra S. Osborn Florida State University



Identity, Vocational choice, Study abroad, Education abroad


This article presents a study with the purpose to determine preliminary findings regarding the effect of a study abroad experience on vocational identity and career decision-making as defined by Cognitive Information Processing (CIP) theory (Sampson et al., 2004). 


Download data is not yet available.


Astin, A. W. (1975). Preventing students from dropping out. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Black, H. T. & Duhon, D. L. (2006). Assessing the impact of business study abroad programs on cultural awareness and personal development. Journal of Education for Business, 81, 140-144.

Borg, R. (1996). Factors determining career choice. European Education, 28, 6.

Bolger, F. &Wright, G. (2011). The Delphi technique: Past, present, and future prospects Technological Forecasting and Social Change,78, 1500-1513.

Brown, S. D., Ryan Krane, N. E., Brecheisen, J., Castelino, P., Budisin, I., Miller, M., & Edens, L. (2003). Critical ingredients of career choice interventions: More analysis and new hypotheses. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 411-428.

Bullock, E., Braud, J., Andrews, L., & Phillips, J. (2009). Career concerns of unemployed U.S. war veterans: suggestions from a cognitive information processing approach. Journal of Employment Counseling, 46, 171-181.

Campagna, C. G. & Curtis, G. J. (2007). So worried I don't know what to be: Anxiety is associated with increased career indecision and reduced career certainty. Australian Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 17, 91-96.

Chapman, V. V. (2011). Beyond the "bubble:" Study abroad and the psychosocial and career development of undergraduates. The University of Mississippi). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 354. Retrieved from

Childress, L. K. (2009). Internationalization plans for higher education institutions. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13, 289-309.

Chow, P. (2010). Brazil-U.S. international educational exchange: Data from the Open Doors Report on International Educational Exchange. PowerPoint presentation. Retrieved February 2013, from and-Reports/IIE-Bookstore/~/media/Files/Corporate/Membership/FAUBAI_2010.ashx

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Coll, K. M., & Stewart, R. A. (2008). College student retention: instrument validation and value for partnering between academic and counseling services. College Student Journal, 42, 41-56.

Deardorff, D. K. (2006). Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10, 241-266.

Dwyer, M. (2004). Charting the impact of studying abroad. International Educator, 13, 14-17.

Dwyer, M., & Peters, C. (2004). The benefits of study abroad. Transitions Abroad, 27, 56-57

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A. G. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1149-1160.

Gardner, P., Gross, L., & Steglitz, I. (2009). Translating study abroad experiences for workplace competencies. Peer Review, 11, 19-22.

Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airsaian, P. (2006). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and application (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NH: Prentice Hall.

Gillespie, J., & Slawson, C. (2002). IES outcomes assessment project. Retrieved February 2013, from

Gordon, V. N. (2007). The undecided college student: An academic career advising challenge (3rd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Green, M. F. (2003). The internationalized campus: A strategic approach. International Educator, 7, 13-26.

Hadis, B. (2005). Why Are They Better Students when They Come Back? Determinants of Academic Focusing Gains in the Study Abroad Experience. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 11, 57-70.

Heppner, P. P., Wampold, B. E., & Kivlinghan, D. M. (2008). Research Design in Counseling (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.

Hirschi, A. & Lage, D. (2008). Increasing the career choice readiness of young adolescents: an evaluation study. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 8, 95-110.

Holland, J. L., Daiger, D. C., & Power, P. G. (1980). My Vocational Situation. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Institute of International Education. (2011). Profile of U.S. study abroad students, 2000/2001 – 2009-10. Retrieved from

Jenkins, K. & Skelly, J. (2004). Study abroad is not enough. Brethren Life and Thought, 49, 257-268.

Lounsbury, J. W., Saudargas, R.A., & Gibson, L. W. (2004). An investigation of personality traits in relation to intention to withdraw from college. Journal of College Student Development, 45, 517-534.

Kuh, G. K., & Kauffmann, N. F. (1984, April). The impact of study abroad on personal development of college students. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, Louisiana.

McMillan, A., & Opem, G. (2002). Study Abroad: A lifetime of benefits. Retrieved from

McQueen, A. (2000, April 21). Education secretary encourages students to study abroad. The Free Lance-Star, p. A11. Retrieved from

National Center for Education Statistics (2004). Percentage distribution of undergraduates by their major field of study and enrollment intensity: 2003–04. Retrieved from

Niser, J. C. (2010). Study abroad education in New England higher education: A pilot survey. The International Journal of Educational Management, 24, 48-55.

Orahood, T., Kruze, T., & Pearson, D. E. (2004). The impact of study abroad on business students' career goals. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 117-130.

Orahood, T., Woolf, J., & Kruze, T. (2008). Study abroad and career paths of business students. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 17, 133-141.

Osborn, D. S., & Reardon, R. C. (2006). Using the self-directed search: Career explorer with high-risk middle school students. The Career Development Quarterly, 54, 269-273.

Norris, E. M. & Gillespie, J. (2009). How study abroad shapes global careers: Evidence from the United States. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13, 382-397.

Peterson, G. W., Sampson, J. P., Jr., & Reardon, R. C. (1991). Career development and services: A cognitive approach. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.

Preston, K. (2012). Recent graduates survey: The impact of studying abroad on recent college graduates’ careers. Retrieved from

Reardon, R. C., Folsom, B., Lee, D., & Clark, J. (2011). The effects of college career courses on learning outputs & outcomes: Technical report No. 53. Publications. Paper 1.

Sampson, J. P, Jr., Lenz, J. G., Reardon, R. C., & Peterson, G. W. (1999). A cognitive
information processing approach to employment problem solving and decision-making. The Career Development Quarterly, 48, 3-18.

Sampson, J. P. Jr., Peterson, G.W., Reardon, R.C., & Lenz, J.G. (2014). Bibliography: A Cognitive information processing (CIP) approach to career development and services. Retrieved from

Sampson, J. P. Jr., Reardon, R. C., Peterson, G. W., & Lenz, J. G. (2004). Career counseling and services: A cognitive information processing approach. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Super, D. E. (1981). Approaches to occupational choice and career development. In A. G. Watts, D. E. Super, & J. M. Kidd (Eds.), Career development in Britain. Cambridge: Hobson's Press.

Teranishi, C. (2007). Impact of experiential learning on Latino college students' identity, relationships, and connectedness to community. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 6, 52-72.

Thrift, M. M., Ulloa-Heath, J., Reardon, R. C., & Peterson, G. W. (2012). Career interventions and the career thoughts of pacific island college students. Journal of Counseling and Development, 90, 169-176.

Uthayakumar, R., Schimmack, U., Hartung, P. J., & Rogers, J. R. (2010) Career decidedness as a predictor of subjective well-being. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77, 196-204.

Walker, J. V., & Peterson, G. W. (2012). Goal instability in relation to career thoughts, decision state, and performance in a career course. Journal of Career Development, 20, 497-506.

Wyman, F. (1997). A predictive model of retention rate at regional two-year colleges. Community College Review, 25, 29-58.

Zakaria, F. (2005). The earth's learning curve; the scientific revolution that began 300 years ago has accelerated exponentially. It is moving so fast that the spread of knowledge defines our times. Nations that learn faster will prosper. But it will take something else--wisdom--to endure. Newsweek International, Atlantic Edition, 6.




How to Cite

Kronholz, J. F., & Osborn, D. S. (2016). The Impact of Study Abroad Experiences on Vocational Identity among College Students. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 27(1), 70–84.



Research Articles