College Students’ Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Participation in Study Abroad
Keywords:LGBTQQ, Study abroad participation, Study abroad, Education abroad, Sexual orientation, Gender identity
In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of students studying abroad; however, researchers have discovered that some student populations are not as likely to study abroad, including students with disabilities, multicultural students, and low-income students. Amid these growing bodies of literature that highlight disparities between students’ participation in study abroad, research fails to address whether lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning or queer students (LGBTQQ) study abroad at lower rates than their peers given that some cultures are not accepting of students’ sexual orientation or transgender identities. This lack of research is troubling because LGBTQQ students face challenges many of their peers do not normally have to confront in higher education. The purpose of this study, then, is to fill this gap in research by answering the following question: are LGBTQQ students significantly less likely to study abroad compared to their peers? Utilizing student data from the multi-institutional Student Experience in the Research University (SERU) survey, the results of this study suggest that LGBTQQ students are significantly more likely than heterosexual and cisgender students to participate in study abroad opportunities in several areas
Brux, J. M., & Fry, B. (2010). Multicultural students in study abroad: Their interests, their issues, and their constraints. Journal of Studies in International Education, 14(5), 508-527. doi: 10.1177/1028315309342486
Burkart, B., Hexter, H., & Thompson, D. (2001). Why TRIO students need to study abroad. Retrieved from http://www.pellinstitute.org/downloads/trio_clearinghouse-opportunity_outlookC.pdf
Carew, J. G. (1993). Minority students abroad: An inspiring experience abroad. The Chronicle of Higher Education, Retrieved from http://chronicle.com.ezproxy.stthomas.edu/article/Minority-Students-Abroadan/71387/
Cass, V. C. (1979). Homosexual identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 219-235
Cragg, K. M. (2009). Influencing the probability for graduation at four-year institutions: A multi model analysis. Research in Higher Education, 50, 394-413.
Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241-1299.
Cubillos, J. H., & Ilvento, T. (2013). The impact of study abroad on students’ self-efficacy perceptions. Foreign Language Annals, 45(4), 494-511. doi: 10.1111/flan.12002
D’Augelli, A. R. (1994). Identity development and sexual orientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development. In E. J. Trickett, R. J. Watts, D. Birman (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 312-333). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Dolby, N. (2004). Encountering an American self: Study abroad and national identity. Comparative Education Review, 48(2), 150-173.
Dolby, N. (2007). Reflections on Nation: American Undergraduates and Education Abroad. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(2), 141-156.
Dunlap, A. (2003). Coming out and coming back: Re-entry issues for GLBT college students who study abroad. NAFSA Rainbow SIG SIGnals Newsletter, 9(2). Retrieved from http://overseas.iu.edu/lesbigay/vol9_2/92re-entry.html
Essig, L. (1999). Queer in Russia: A story of sex, self, and the other. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Evans, N. J., Forney, D. S., Guido, F. M., Patton, L. D., & Renn, K. A. (2010). Student development in college: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Fassinger, R. E. (1998). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identity and student development theory. In R. L. Sanlo (Ed.), Working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender college students: A handbook for faculty and administrators. (pp. 13-32). Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Gevisser, M., & Cameron, E. (Eds.). (1995). Defiant desire: Gay and lesbian lives in South Africa. New York, NY: Routledge.
Gimelstein, S. (2012, April 8). LGBT students face challenges while studying abroad. The Daily
Pennsylvanian. Retrieved from http://www.thedp.com/article/2012/04/lgbt_students_face_difficulties_while_studying_abroad
Hadis, B. F. (2005). Why are they better students when they come back? Determinants of academic focusing gains in the study abroad experience. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 11, 57-70.
Hameister, B. G., Matthews, P. R., Hosley, N. S., & Groff, M. C. (1999). College students with disabilities and study abroad: Implications for international education staff. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 5(2), 81-100.
Holland, L., Matthews, T. L., & Schott, M. R. (2013). “That’s so gay!” exploring college students’ attitudes toward the LGBT population. Journal of Homosexuality, 60(4), 575-595. doi: 10.1080/00918369.2013.760321
Hosmer, D. W., & Lemeshow, S. (2000). Applied logistic regression (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley-Inter-Science Publication.
Institute of International Education. (2012). Open doors report. Retrieved from http://www.iie.org/Research-and-Publications/Open-Doors
Jackson, P.A. (1996). Dear uncle go: Male homosexuality in Thailand (2nd ed.). San Francisco,
CA: Bua Luang Publishing Company.
Jackson, M. J. (2005). Study abroad for students of color. IIE Networker: The International Education Magazine, Retrieved from http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/IIEB0205/index.php?startid=16#/16
Johnson, D. (2000). Enhancing out-of-class opportunities for students with disabilities. New Directions for Students Services, 91, 41-53.
LaFranchi, H. (2003, August 19). Why more students are studying abroad: Reasons such as ‘seeing the world’ still prevail, but some students also want new views of the U.S. role. The Christian Science Monitor.
Landau, J., & Moore, D. M. (2001). Towards reconciliation in the motherland: Race, class, nationality, gender, and the complexities of American student presence at the University of Ghana, Legon. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 7(2), 25-59.
Lipka, S. (2011, March 6). For gay students, more room on campuses. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
Lumsden, I. (1996). Machos, maricones, and gays: Cuba and homosexuality. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
McMillan, A. R., & Opem, G. (2002). Study Abroad: A Lifetime of Benefits. IES Abroad, Retrieved from http://www.iesabroad.org/study-abroad/news/study-abroad-lifetime-benefits
Merrick, J., & Ragan, B. T. (1996). Homosexuality in Modern France (Studies in the History of Sexuality). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Miller, N. (1992). Out in the world: Gay and lesbian life from Buenos Aires to Bangkok. New York, NY: Random House.
Murray, S. O., & Roscoe, W. (Eds.). (1998). Boy-wives and female-husbands: Studies of African homosexualities. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.
Myers, D. N., Hill, M., & Harwood, S. A. (2005). Cross-cultural learning and study abroad: Transforming pedagogical outcomes. Landscape Journal, 24(2), 172-184.
NAFSA: Association of International Educators. (1993). GLBT perspectives and study abroad orientations. Informal International Educational Task Force on GLBT Concerns, University of Minnesota. Retrieved from http://overseas.iu.edu/lesbigay/advise/orientations.html
NAFSA: Association of International Educators Rainbow Special Interest Group. (2011). Retrieved from http://overseas.iu.edu/lesbigay/
NASFA Rainbow SIG. (2000). Student resources. Retrieved from http://overseas.iu.edu/lesbigay/student.htm
Norris, E.M., & Gillespie, J. (2009). How study abroad shapes global careers: Evidence from the United States. Journal of Studies of International Education, 13(3), 382-397.
O’Carroll, I., & Collins, E. (1996). Lesbian and gay visions of Ireland: Towards the twenty-first century. New York, NY: Cassell.
Opper, S., Teichler, U., & Carlson, J. (1990). Impacts of study abroad programmes on students and graduates. London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Otero, M. S. (2008). The socio-economic background of Erasmus students: A trend towards wider inclusion? International Review of Education, 54(2), 135-154.
Parker, R. G. (1999). Beneath the equator: Cultures of desire, male homosexuality, and emerging gay communities in Brazil. New York, NY: Routledge.
Rhodes, G., Biscarra, A., Loberg, L., & Roller, K. (2012). Study abroad as a collaborative endeavor. About Campus, 16(6), 2-10. doi: 10.1002/abc.20081
Salisbury, M. H., Paulsen, M. B., & Pascarella, E. T. (2011). Why do all study abroad students look alike? Applying an integrated student choice model to explore differences in the Factors that influence white and minority students’ intent to study abroad. Research in Higher Education, 52(2), 123-150. doi: 10.1007/s11162-010-9191-2
Scheib, M., & Mitchell, M. (2008). Awaiting a world experience no longer: It’s time for all students with disabilities to go overseas. In T. Berberi, E. C. Hamilton, & I.M. Sutherland (Eds.). Worlds apart?: Disability and foreign language learning. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Schmidt, P. (2009). Men and women differ in how they decide to study abroad, study finds. The Chronicle of Higher Education, Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/article/MenWomen-Differ-in-How/49085/
Seabrook, J., & Gopalan, A. (1999). Love in a different climate: Men who have sex with men in India. New York, NY: Verso Books.
Shames, W., & Alden, P. (2005). The impact of short-term study abroad on the identity development of college students with learning disabilities and/or ad/hd. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 11, 1-31.
Shea, P. (2001). Being gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender abroad. Paper presented at the NAFSA 2001 Conference. Retrieved from http://overseas.iu.edu/lesbigay/nafsa_2001_presen.htm
Soneson, H. M., & Cordano, R. J. (2009). Universal design and study abroad: (Re-) designing programs for effectiveness and access. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 18, 269-288.
Soneson, H. M., & Fisher, S. (2011). Education abroad for students with disabilities: Expanding access. New Directions for Student Services, (134), 59-72.
Soria, K. M., & Barratt, W. (2012, June). Examining class in the classroom: Utilizing social class data in institutional and academic research. Association for Institutional Research Forum, New Orleans, LA.
Soria, K. M., & Troisi, J. N. (2013). Internationalization at home alternatives to study abroad: Implications for students’ development of global, international, and intercultural competencies. Journal of Studies in International Education (currently in “online first” format).
Stevens, R.A. (2004). Understanding gay identity development within the college environment. Journal of College Student Development, 45(2), 185-206. doi: 10.1353/csd.2004.0028
Stebleton, M. J., Soria, K. M., & Cherney, B. (2013). The high impact of education abroad: College students' engagement in international experiences and the development of intercultural competencies. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 22, 1-24.
Suicide Prevention Resource Center. (2008). Suicide risk and prevention for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Retrieved from http://www.sprc.org/sites/sprc.org/files/library/SPRC_LGBT_Youth.pdf
Summerhawk, B., McMahill, C., & McDonald, D. (Eds.). (1998). Queer Japan: Personal stories of Japanese lesbians, gays, transsexuals and bisexuals. New York, NY: New Victoria Publishing.
Talburt, S., & Stewart, M. A. (1999). What’s the subject of study abroad? Race, gender, and “living culture.” The Modern Language Journal, 83(2), 163-175.
Thatchell, P. (1992). Europe in the pink: Lesbian and gay equality in New Europe. London, UK: Gay Men’s Press.
Troiden, R.R. (1989). The formation of homosexual identities. Journal of Homosexuality, 17, 43-74.
Twill, S .E., & Guzzo, G. R. (2012). Lessons learned from a disabilities accessible study abroad trip. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 25(1), 81-86.
Twombly, S. B. (1995). Piropos and friendships: Gender and culture clash in study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, (1), 1-16.
Twombly, S. B., Salisbury, M. H., Tumanut, S. D., & Klute, P. (2012). Study abroad in a new global century: Renewing the promise, refining the purpose. ASHE Higher Education Report, 38(4), 1-152.
U.S. Department of State. (2013). LGBT travel information. Retrieved from http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/lgbt/lgbt_5887.html