Motivation and Connection to Earth on Geology Field Trips in New Zealand: Comparing American Study Abroad Students with Local Undergraduates
Keywords:Motivation, Connection to Earth, Geology, New Zealand, Study abroad, Education abroad
Field education is a critical and enriching component of the undergraduate geoscience curriculum, enhanced when combined with a study abroad program. The affective domain – defined in geoscience as emotion, motivation, and connection to Earth – is an integral part of the field experience. Using questionnaire data collected at the start of two geoscience field trips, this study compares motivation and connection to Earth of study abroad students from the United States with local New Zealand students. Results show that study abroad students have more expert-like motivations and ecological worldviews, and are more attached to and see more positive and diverse meanings in the field area. To take advantage of this and improve student outcomes, we recommend that this study abroad module be adapted to be more applied, environmentally-focused, and place-based. Findings highlight the importance of teaching and learning to specific study abroad students, rather than applying unchanged curricula from local institutions.
Apple, J., Lemus, J., and Semken, S., 2014b, Teaching geoscience in the context of culture and place: Theme issue continued: Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 62, p. 157, doi:10.5408/1089-9995-62.2.157.
Ault, Jr., C.R.,2008, Achieving “Querencia”: Integrating a sense of place with disciplined thinking: Curriculum Inquiry, v. 38, p. 605-637, doi:10.1111/j.1467-873x.2008.00438.x.
Baeten, M., Kyndt, E., Struyven, K., and Dochy, F., 2010, Using student-centred learning environments to stimulate deep approaches to learning: Factors encouraging or discouraging their effectiveness: Education Research Review, v. 5, p. 243-260, doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2010.06.001.
Bandura, A., 1977, Self efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change: Psychological Review, v. 84, p.191-215, doi:10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191.
Benware, C.A, and Deci, E.L., 1984, Quality of learning with an active versus passive motivational set: American Educational Research Journal, v. 21, p.755-765, doi:10.3102/00028312021004755.
Boyle, A., Maguire, S., Martin, A., Milsom, C., Nash, R., Rawlinson, S., Turner, A., Wurthmann, S., and Conchie, S., 2007, Fieldwork is good: the student perception and the affective domain: Journal of Geography in Higher Education, v. 31, p. 299-317, doi:10.1080/03098260601063628.
Brandenburg, A.M., and Carroll, M.S., 1995, Your place or mine?: the effect of place creation on environmental values and landscape meanings: Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal, v. 8, p. 381-398, doi:10.1080/08941929509380931.
Chen, N.C., Dwyer, L., and Firth, T., 2014, Effect of dimensions of place attachment on residents’ worth-of-mouth behavior: Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment, v. 16, p. 826-843, doi:10.1080/14616688.2014.915877.
Chirkov, V.I., Safdar, S., de Guzman, J., and Playford, K., 2007, Further examining the role motivation to study abroad plays in the adaptation of international students in Canada: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, v. 32, p. 427-440, doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2007.12.001.
Chirkov, V., Vansteenkiste, M., Tao, R., and Lynch, M., 2008, The role of self-determined motivation and goals for study abroad in the adaptation of international students: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, v. 31, p. 199-222, doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.03.002.
Church, M., 1998, Think globally, learn locally: Broadening perspectives of the Earth: Geoscience Canada, v. 25, p. 171-182.
Cusick, J., 2009, Study abroad in support of education for sustainability: A New Zealand case study: Environment, Development and Sustainability, v. 11, p. 801-813, doi:10.1007/s10668-008-9144-5.
Davenport, M.A., and Anderson, D.H., 2005, Getting from sense of place to place-based management: An interpretive investigation of place meanings and perceptions of landscape change: Society and Natural Resources: An International Journal, v. 18, p. 625-641, doi:10.1080/08941920590959613.
Deci, E.L., and Ryan, R.M., 1985, The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality: Journal of Research in Personality, v. 19, p. 109-134, doi:10.1016/0092-6566(85)90023-6.
Deci, E.L., Vallerand, R.J., Pelletier, L.G., and Ryan, R.M., 1991, Motivation and education: the self-determination perspective: Educational Psychologist, v. 26, p. 325-346, doi:10.1080/00461520.1991.9653137.
Dohaney, J., Brogt, E., Wilson, T., Hudson-Doyle, E., Kennedy, B., Lindsay, J., Bradley, B., Johnston, D., and Gravley, D., 2016, Improving science communication through scenario-based role-plays: Ako Aotearoa National Project Fund Report, 80 p.
Dunlap, R.E., Van Liere, K.D., Mertig, A.G., and Jones, R.E., 2000, Measuring endorsement of the New Ecological Paradigm: A revised NEP scale: Journal of Social Issues, v. 56, p. 452-442, doi:10.1111/0022-4537.00176.
Dweck, C.S., 1986, Motivational processes affecting learning: American Psychologist, v. 41, p. 1040-1048, doi:10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1040.
Dwyer, M.M., and Peters, C.K., 2004, The benefits of study abroad: Transitions Abroad, v. 37, p. 56-58.
Eccles, J.S., and Wigfield, A., 2002, Motivational beliefs, values, and goals: Annual Review of Psychology, v. 53, p. 109-132, doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153.
Eppes, M.C., 2009, Introducing field-based geologic research using soil geomorphology: Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 57, p. 11-22, doi:10.5408/1.3544222.
Franzen, A., 2003, Environmental attitudes in cross-national perspective: A multilevel analysis of the ISSP 1993 and 2000: European Sociological Review, v. 26, p. 219-234, doi:10.1093/esr/jcp018.
Gill, S.E., Marcum-Dietrich, N., and Becker-Klein, R., 2014, Model My Watershed: Connecting students’ conceptual understanding of watersheds to real-world decision making: Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 62, p. 61-73, doi:10.5408/12-395.1.
Grolnick, W.S., and Ryan, R.M., 1987, Autonomy in children’s learning: An experimental and individual difference investigation, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, v.52, p.890-898, doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1680.
Gruenewald, D.A., 2003, The best of both worlds: A critical pedagogy of place: Educational Researcher, v. 32, p. 3-12, doi:10.3102/0013189X032004003.
Gustafson, P., 2001, Meanings of place: everyday experience and theoretical conceptualizations: Journal of Environmental Psychology, v. 21, p. 5-16, doi:10.1006/jevp.2000.0185.
Hadis, B.F., 2005, Why are they better students when they come back? Determinants of academic focusing gains in the study abroad experience: Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, v. 11, p. 57-70.
Halpenny, E.A., 2010, Pro-environmental behaviours and park visitors: the effect of place attachment: Journal of Environmental Psychology, v. 30, p. 409-421, doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.04.006.
Harlen, W., 2005, Teachers’ summative practices and assessment for learning – tensions and synergies: Curriculum Journal, v. 16, p. 207-223, doi:10.1080/09585170500136093.
Hidi, S., and Renninger, K.A., 2006, The four-phase model of interest development: Educational Psychologist, v. 41, p. 111-127, doi:10.1207/s15326985ep4102_4.
Hoisch, T.D., and Bowie, J.I., 2010, Assessing factors that influence the recruitment of majors from introductory geology classes at Northern Arizona University: Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 58, p. 166-176, doi:10.5408/1.3544297.
Houlton, H.R., 2010, Academic provenance: Investigation of pathways that lead students into the geosciences [M.S. thesis]: West Lafayette, Purdue University, 121p.
Jolley, A., and Ayala, G., 2015, “Living with Volcanoes”: Cross-curricular teaching in the high school classroom: Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 63, p. 297-309, doi:10.5408/14-048.1.
Jolley, A., Kennedy, B.M., Brogt, E., Hampton, S.J., Fraser, L., in review, Are we there yet? Sense of place and the student experience on roadside and situated geology field trips: Geosphere (revisions submitted 17 May 2017).
Kastens, K.A., Manduca, C.A., Cervato, C., Frodeman, R., Goodwin, C., Liben, L.S., Mogk, D.W., Spangler, T.C., Stillings, N.A., and Titus, S., 2009, How geoscientists think and learn: EOS, Transactions. American Geophysical Union, v. 90, p. 265-266, doi:10.1029/eost2009EO31.
Kent, M., Gilbertson, D.D., and Hunt, C.O., 1997, Fieldwork in geography teaching: A critical review of the literature and approaches: Journal of Geography in Higher Education, v. 21, p. 313-332, doi:10.1080/03098269708725439.
Knight, P.T., 2002, Summative assessment in higher education: Practices in disarray: Studies in Higher Education, v. 27, p. 275-286, doi:10.1080/03075070220000662.
Kyle, G., Graefe, A., and Manning, R., 2005, Testing the dimensionality of place attachment in recreational settings: Environment & Behavior, v. 37, p. 153-177, doi:10.1177/0013916504269654.
LaDue, N.D., and Pacheco, H.A., 2013, Critical experiences for field geologists: emergent themes in interest development: Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 61, p. 428-436, doi:10.5408/12-375.1.
Levine, R., González, R., Cole, S., Fuhrman, M., and LeFloch, K.C., 2007, The geoscience pipeline: A conceptual framework: Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 55, p. 458-468, doi:10.5408/1089-9995-55.6.458.
Lewis, T.L., and Niesenbaum, R.A., 2005, Extending the stay: Using community-based research and service learning to enhance short-term study abroad: Journal of Studies in International Education, v. 9, p. 251-264, doi:10.1177/1028315305277682.
Manderson, A.K., Mackay, A.D., and Palmer, A.P., 2007, Environmental whole farm management plans: Their character, diversity, and use as agri-environmental indicators in New Zealand: Journal of Environmental Management, v. 82, p. 319-331, doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2005.05.020.
Marshall, R.S., Akoorie, M.E.M., Hamann, R., and Sinha, P., 2010, Environmental practices in the wine industry: An empirical application of the theory of reasoned action and stakeholder theory in the United States and New Zealand: Journal of World Business, v. 45, p. 405-414, doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2009.08.009.
Marton, F., and Säljo, R., 1984, Approaches to learning, in Marton, F., Hounsell, D.J., and Entwistle, N.J., eds., The Experience of Learning: Scottish Academic Press, p. 36-55.
Massey, D., 2005, For Space: London, Sage Publications Ltd, 222 p.
Monet, J., and Greene, T., 2012, Using Google Earth and satellite imagery to foster place-based teaching in an introductory physical geology course: Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 60, p. 10-20, doi:10.5408/10-203.1.
Niser, J.C., 2010, Study abroad education in New England higher education: A pilot survey: International Journal of Educational Management, v. 24, p. 48-55, doi:10.1108/09513541011013042.
O’Neill, G., and McMahon, T., 2005, Student-centred learning: What does it mean for students and lecturers?, in O’Neill, G., Moore, S., and McMullin, B., eds., Emerging Issues in the Practice of University Learning and Teaching: Dublin, All Ireland Society for Higher Education, p.27-36.
Orchiston, C., 2012, Seismic risk scenario planning and sustainable tourism management: Christchurch and the Alpine Fault zone, South Island, New Zealand: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, v. 20, p. 59-79, doi:10.1080/09669582.2011.617827.
Orion, N., and Hofstein, A., 1994, Factors that influence learning during a scientific field trip in a natural environment: Journal of Research in Science Teaching, v. 31, p. 1097-1119, doi:10.1002/tea.3660311005.
O’Steen, B., and Perry, L., 2012, Service-learning as a responsive and engaging curriculum: A higher education institution’s response to natural disaster: Curriculum Matters, v. 8, p. 171-183.
Pearce, A.R., Bierman, P.R., Druschel, G.K., Massey, C., Rizzo, D.M., Watzin, M.C., and Wemple, B.C., 2010, Pitfalls and successes of developing an interdisciplinary watershed field science course: Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 58, p. 145-154, doi:10.5408/1.3544295.
Penetito, W., 2009, Place-based education: Catering for curriculum, culture and community: New Zealand Annual Review of Education, v. 18, p. 5-29.
Petcovic, H.L., Libarkin, J.C., and Baker, K.M., 2009, An empirical methodology for investigating geocognition in the field: Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 57, p. 316-328, doi:10.5408/1.3544284.
Petcovic, H.L., Stokes, A., and Caulkins, J.L., 2014, Geoscientists’ perceptions of the value of undergraduate field education: GSA Today, v. 24, p. 4-40, doi:10.1130/GSATG196A.1.
Pintrich, P.R., Smith, D.A.F., Garcia, T., and McKeachie, W.J., 1991, A manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ): National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning Project on Instructional Processes and Educational Outcomes, 76 p.
Riggs, E.M., 2005, Field-based education and indigenous knowledge: Essential components of geoscience education for Native American communities: Science Education, v. 89, p. 269-313, doi:10.1002/sce.20032.
Riggs, E.M., Lieder, C.C., and Balliet, R., 2009, Geologic problem solving in the field: analysis of field navigation and mapping by advanced undergraduates: Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 57, p. 48-63, doi:10.5408/1.3559525.
Rollero, C., and De Piccoli, N., 2010, Place attachment, identification and environment perception: An empirical study: Journal of Environmental Psychology, v. 30, p. 198-205, doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.12.003.
Rowe, D., 2002, Environmental literacy and sustainability as core requirements: Success stories and models, in Filho, W.L., ed., Teaching Sustainability at Universities: Peter Lang, p. 79-104.
Ryan, R.M., and Deci, E.L., 2000, Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions, v. 25, p. 54-67, doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1020.
Semken, S., 2005, Sense of place and place-based introductory geoscience teaching for American Indian and Alaska Native undergraduates: Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 53, p. 149-157, doi:10.5408/1089-9995-53.2.149.
Semken, S., and Butler Freeman, C., 2008, Sense of place in the practice and assessment of place-based science teaching: Science Education, v. 92, p. 1042-1057, doi:10.1002/sce.20279.
Semken, S., Butler Freeman, C., Watts, N.B., Neakrase, J.J., Dial, R.E., and Baker, D.R., 2009, Factors that influence sense of place as a learning outcome and assessment measure of place-based geoscience teaching: Electronic Journal of Science Education, v. 13, p.136-158.
Semken, S., Geraghty Ward, E., Moosavi, S., and Chinn, P.W.U., in review, Place-based education in geoscience: theory, research, practice, and assessment.
Shephard, K., Mann, S., Smith, N., and Deaker, L., 2009, Benchmarking the environmental values and attitudes of students in New Zealand’s post-compulsory education: Environmental Education Research, v. 15, p. 571-587, doi:10.1080/13504620903050523.
Stokes, A., and Boyle, A.P., 2009, The undergraduate geoscience fieldwork experience: Influencing factors and implications for learning, in Whitmeyer, S.J., Mogk, D.W., and Pyle, E.J., eds., Field Geology Education: Historical Perspectives and Modern Approaches: Geological Society of America, Special Paper 461, p. 291-311, doi:10.1130/2009.2461(23).
Sweller, J., 1988, Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning: Cognitive Science, v. 12, p. 257-585, doi:10.1016/0364-0213(88)90023-7.
Sweller, J., 1994, Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design: Learning and Instruction, v. 4, p. 295-312, doi:10.1016/0959-4752(94)90003-5.
Taras, M., 2005, Assessment – summative and formative – some theoretical reflections: British Journal of Educational Studies, v. 53, p. 466-478, doi:10.1111/j.1467-8527.2005.00307.x.
Trigwell, K., and Prosser, M., 1991, Improving the quality of student learning: the influence of learning context and student approaches to learning on learning outcomes: Higher Education, v. 22, p.251-266, doi:10.1007/bf00132290.
Trop, J.M., Krockover, G.H., and Ridgway, K.D., 2000, Integration of field observations with laboratory modeling for understanding hydrologic processes in an undergraduate earth-science course: Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 48, p. 514-521, doi:10.5408/1089-9995-48.4.514.
Tuan, Y-F., 1977, Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience: Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 235 p.
Valentine, I., Hurley, E., Reid, J., and Allen, W., 2007, Principles and processes for effecting change in environmental management in New Zealand: Journal of Environmental Management, v. 82, p. 311-318, doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2005.08.029.
van der Hoeven Kraft, K.J., Srogi, L., Husman, J., Semken, S., and Fuhrman, M., 2011, Engaging students to learn through the affective domain: A new framework for teaching in the geosciences: Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 59, p. 71-84, doi:10.5408/1.3543934.
Vaske, J.J., and Kobrin, K.C., 2001, Place attachment and environmentally responsible behavior: The Journal of Environmental Education, v. 32, p. 16-21, doi:10.1080/00958960109598658.
Vytal, K., Cornwell, B., Arkin, N., and Grillon, C., 2012, Describing the interplay between anxiety and cognition: From impaired performance under low cognitive load to reduced anxiety under high load: Psychophysiology, v. 49, p. 842-852, doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2012.01358.x.
Weissman, N.B., 2012, Sustainability and liberal education: Partners by nature: Liberal Education, v. 98, p. 6-13.
White, D.D., Virden, R.J., and van Riper, C.J., 2008, Effects of place identity, place dependence and experience-use history on perceptions of recreation impacts in a natural setting: Environmental Management, v. 42, p. 647-657, doi:10.1007/s00267-008-9143-1.
Whitmeyer, S.J., and Mogk, D.W., 2009, Geoscience field education: A recent resurgence: EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 90, p. 385-396, doi:10.1029/2009EO430001.
Whitmeyer, S.J., Mogk, D.W., and Pyle, E.J., 2009, An introduction to historical perspectives on and modern approaches to field geology education, in Whitmeyer, S.J.,
Mogk, D.W., and Pyle, E.J., eds., Field Geology Education: Historical Perspectives and Modern Approaches: Geological Society of America, Special Paper 461, p. vii-ix, doi:10.1130/2009.2461(00).
Williams, D., and Semken, S., 2011, Ethnographic methods in analysis of place-based geoscience curriculum and pedagogy, in Feig, A.D., and Stokes, A., eds., Qualitative Inquiry in Geoscience Education Research: Geological Society of America, Special Paper 474, p. 49-62, doi:10.1130/2011.2474(05).
Williams, D.R., and Stewart, S.I., 1998, Sense of place: An elusive concept that is finding a home in ecosystem management: Journal of Forestry, v. 96, p. 18-23, doi:10.1007/s11524-011-9579-0.
Williams, D.R., and Vaske, J.J., 2003, The measurement of place attachment: Validity and generalizability of a psychometric approach: Forest Science, v. 49, p. 830-840.
Young, M., 1999, The social construction of tourist places: Australian Geographer, v. 30, p. 373-389, doi:10.1080/00049189993648.
Zelezny, L.C., Chua, P-P., and Aldrich, C., 2000, Elaborating on gender issues in environmentalism: Journal of Social Issues, v. 56, p. 443-457, doi:10.1111/0022-4537.00177.