The Impacts of International Service Learning on a Host Community in Kenya: Host Student Perspectives Related to Global Citizenship and Relative Deprivation

  • Elizabeth Mogford Western Washington University
  • Christopher J. Lyons University of New Mexico
Keywords: International Service-Learning, Education abroad, Kenya, Global Citizenship, Host community

Abstract

Despite recent calls, research on ISL has focused almost exclusively on learning outcomes for global North students. We know comparatively less about how ISL programs may impact the knowledge and perceptions of student participants from hos t countries in the global South. We examine learning outcomes for Kenyan students who interact with visiting students from a U S university. Using an original survey and a case control design, we compare the responses of students from an ISL pa rtner school with those of students in a nearby control school to explore how program participation influences ideas about global citizenship, viewpoints about the United States and feelings of relative deprivation. Results point to the complexity of ISL programs and their impact on host country participants. On the one hand, we find that ISL partner students show higher levels of global citizenship than control group students. On the other hand, ISL partner students are more likely than the control gr oup to agree with unrealistically positive views of the United States and report greater feelings of relative deprivation. We apply Allport’s intergroup contact theory to interpret these findings and reflect on future directions.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Allport, G. W. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

Arends, J. (2016). In the right relationship: A case study of international service learning in eastern Africa. In M. A. Larsen (Ed.), International service learning: Engaging host communities (pp. 108-118). New York, NY: Routledge.

Baldwin, T., Mohamed, S., & Tembe, J. (2016). The potential of ISL: Re-examining ethical engagement amongst ISL partners. In M. A. Larsen (Ed.), International service learning: Engaging host communities (pp. 201-214). New York, NY: Routledge.

Bortolin, K. (2011). Serving ourselves: How the discourse on community engagement privileges the university over the community. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 18(1), 49-58.

Bringle, R. G., & Hatcher, J. A. (2011). International service learning. In R. G. Bringle, J. A. Hatcher, & S. G. Jones (Eds.), International service learning: Conceptual frameworks and research (pp. 3-28). Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Crabtree, R. D. (2013). The intended and unintended consequences of international service-learning. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 17(2), 43-66. Retrieved from

https://works.bepress.com/robbin_crabtree/14/

Dear, S., & Howard, R. (2016). Many meanings: Moving reciprocity towards interdependence. In M. A. Larsen (Ed.), International service learning: Engaging host communities (pp. 162-174). New York, NY: Routledge.

Fry, G. W., Paige, R. M., Jon, J. E., Dillow, J., & Nam, K. A. (2009). Study abroad and its transformative power. CIEE Occasional Paper, 32, 1-72.

Galiardi, S., & Koehn, J. (2012). Strategies to mitigate the negative and accentuate the positive impacts of international service-learning on host communities. Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement, 2(1), 1-12. Retrieved from http://libjournal.uncg.edu/prt/article/view/431

Hartman, E., & Kiely, R. (2014a). A critical global citizenship. In P.M. Green & M. Johnson (Eds.), Crossing boundaries: Tensions and transformation in international service-learning (pp. 215-242). Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Hartman, E., & Kiely, R. (2014b). Pushing boundaries: Introduction to the global service-learning special section. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 21(1), 55-63.

Hartman, E., Paris, C. M., & Blache-Cohen, B. (2014). Fair trade learning: Ethical standards for community-engaged international volunteer tourism. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 14(1-2), 108–116. doi:10.1177/1467358414529443

Hernández, J. (2016). Reflections from a Nicaraguan career ISL program coordinator: Challenges and guidelines for moving forward. In M. A. Larsen (Ed.), International service learning: Engaging host communities (pp. 147-161). New York, NY: Routledge.

Heron, B. (2016). Southern perspectives on ISL volunteers: Reframing the neo-colonial encounter. In M. A. Larsen (Ed.), International service learning: Engaging host communities (pp. 94-107). New York, NY: Routledge.

Hyman, H. H., & Singer, E. (Eds.) (1968). Readings in reference group theory and research. New York, NY: The Free Press.

Jorgenson, S. (2016). Orient(aliz)ation: A case study of North American international education programs at the University of Ghana. In M. A. Larsen (Ed.), International service learning: Engaging host communities (pp. 119-130). New York, NY: Routledge.

Kiely, R. (2005). A transformative learning model for service-learning: A longitudinal case study. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 12(1), 5-22.

Kiley, R. (2011). What international service learning research can learn from research on international learning. In R. G. Bringle, J. A. Hatcher, & S. G. Jones (Eds.), International service learning: Conceptual frameworks and research (pp. 243-273). Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Kozak, J., & Larsen, M. (2016). Conclusion: ISL and host communities–relationships and responsibility. In M. A. Larsen (Ed.), International service learning: Engaging host communities (pp. 263-276). New York, NY: Routledge.

Larkin, A. (2015). Close encounters of the other kind: Ethical relationship formation and international service learning. Citizenship Teaching and Learning, 10(2), 143-155. doi:10.1386/ctl.10.2.143_1

Larsen, M. (2014). Critical global citizenship and international service learning: A case study of the intensification effect. Journal of Global Citizenship & Equity Education, 4(1),1-43.

Larsen, M. (2016). International service learning: Engaging host communities. In M. A. Larsen (Ed.), International service learning: Engaging host communities (pp. 3-18). New York, NY: Routledge.

Lutterman-Aguilar, A., & Gingerich, O. (2015). Experiential pedagogy for study abroad: Educating for global citizenship. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 8, 41-82.

MacDonald, K., & Vorstermans, J. (2016). Struggles for mutuality: Conceptualizing hosts as participants in international service learning in Ghana. In M. A. Larsen (Ed.), International service learning: Engaging Host communities (pp. 131-146). New York, NY: Routledge.

Merton, R., & Kitt, A. (1950). Contributions to the theory of reference group behavior. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

Nelson, E., & Klak, T. (2012). Equity in international experiential learning: Assessing benefits to students and host communities. PRISM: A Journal of Regional Engagement, 1(2), 106-129. Retrieved from http://encompass.eku.edu/prism/vol1/iss2/3

O’Sullivan, M., & Smaller, H. (2016). Solidarity or neo-colonialism? The challenges of understanding the impact of ISL on Nicaraguan host communities. In M. A. Larsen (Ed.), International service learning: Engaging host communities (pp. 49-64). New York, NY: Routledge.

Paik, S. J., Ganley, D. E., Luschei, T. F., Kula, , S. M., Witenstein, M. A., Shimogori, Y., Truong, K. K. (2015). Intercultural exchange among global teachers: The case of the teaching excellence and achievement study abroad program. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 49, 100-113. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.06.011

Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(5), 751-783. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.90.5.751

Reynolds, N. P. (2014). What counts as outcomes? Community perspectives of an engineering partnership. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 21(1), 79-90.

Rutstein, S. O., & Johnson, K. (2004). The DHS wealth index. DHS Comparative Reports No. 6. Calverton, Maryland: ORC Macro.

Schroeder, K., Wood, C., Galiardi, S., & Koehn, J. (2009). First, do no harm: Ideas for mitigating negative community impacts of short-term study abroad. Journal of Geography, 108(3), 141-147. doi:10.1080/00221340903120866

Smedley, C.T. (2016). The economic circle: Impacts of volunteerism and service learning on three rural communities in Costa Rica. In M. A. Larsen (Ed.), International service learning: Engaging host communities (pp. 65-79). New York, NY: Routledge.

Tarrant, M. A., Rubin, D. L., & Stoner, L. (2015). The effects of studying abroad and studying sustainability on students’ global perspectives. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 26, 68-82.

Tarrant, M. A., Rubin, D. L., & Stoner, L. (2014). The added value of study abroad: Fostering a global citizenry. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(2), 141-161. doi:10.1177/1028315313497589

Tonkin, H. (2004). Service learning across cultures: Promise and achievement. New York, NY: International Partnership for Service-Learning and Leadership.

Whitehead, D. M. (2015). Global service learning: Addressing the big challenges. Diversity and Democracy, 18(3). Association of American Colleges and Universities. Retrieved from https://www.aacu.org/diversitydemocracy/2015/summer/whitehead

Wood, C., Banks, S., Galiardi, S., Koehn, J., & Schroeder, K. (2011). Community impacts of international service-learning and study abroad: An analysis of focus groups with program leaders. Partnerships, 2(1), 1-23.

Published
2019-11-14
How to Cite
Mogford, E., & Lyons, C. J. (2019). The Impacts of International Service Learning on a Host Community in Kenya: Host Student Perspectives Related to Global Citizenship and Relative Deprivation. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 31(2), 86-104. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v31i2.456