Global Literature in Tandem with Study Abroad: Cultivating Intercultural Competence for Preservice Teachers
Keywords:internationalization of the curriculum, pre-service teacher education, short-term study abroad to Germany, Rosenblatt's transactional theory of reading, cross-cultural literary reading
The purpose of this study was to examine how literature study and study abroad, in combination as methods of internationalization, influence preservice teachers’ (PSTs) intercultural competence and potential future classroom practices. Elementary education PSTs studied abroad in Germany for five weeks. As part of the preparation, they read a German novel identified as global literature. While abroad, they saw the corresponding movie and had conversations with German peers to better understand it within its cultural context. Three sources of data - My Cultural Awareness Profile, a Germany Questionnaire, and a Critical Blueprint novel reflection essay – were analyzed. To better connect experiential learning abroad to future teaching, faculty guided PSTs to critically examine their pre- and post-responses. The findings indicate global literature is effective to begin to shift PSTs cultural perspectives. In combination, literature study and study abroad bring a global perspective to teacher preparation that can cultivate PSTs’ intercultural competence.
Altmann, A. E. (1995). Literacy for the School Librarian. Literacy: Traditional, Cultural, Technological. Selected papers from the annual conference of the International Association of School Librarianship, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Amer, A. A. (2003). Teaching EFL/ESL Literature. Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal, 3(2).
Arbeitskreis für Jugendliteratur. (2019). Deutscher Jugendliteraturpries. Retrieved from https://www.jugendliteratur.org/buch/tschick-129
Auracher, J., & Hirose, A. (2017). The influence of reader’s stereotypes on the assessment of fictional characters. Comparative Literature Studies, 54(4), 795-823.
Baer, J., Bhandari, R., Andrejko, N., & Mason, L. (2018). Open Doors 2018 Report on International Educational Exchange. New York: Institute of International Education.
Banks, J. (1993). Multicultural education: Historical development, dimensions, and practice. Review of Research in Education, 19(1), 3-49.
Brewer, E., & Leask, B. (2012). Internationalization of the curriculum. In D. K. Deardorff, H. de Wit, J. D. Heyl, & T. Adams (Eds.). The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education (pp. 245-265). Washington, DC: Sage.
Byker, E. J., & Putman, S. M. (2019). Catalyzing cultural and global competencies: engaging preservice teachers in study abroad to expand the agency of citizenship. Journal of Studies in International Education, 23(1), 84-105.
Chambers, A. (1983). A Critical Blueprint. In Introducing Books to Children. In Introducing books to children. Pp 174-193. Boston: The Horn Book, Inc.
Cushner, K. (2007). The role of experience in the making of internationally-minded teachers. Teacher Education Quarterly, 34(1), 27-39.
Daniels, H. (2002). Literature circles: Voice and choice in book clubs & reading groups (2nd ed.). Portland, ME: Stenhouse.
Dantas, M. L. (2007). Building teacher competency to work with diverse learners in the context of international education. Teacher Education Quarterly, 75-94.
Deardorff, D. K. (2006). Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 241-266. Doi: 10.1177/1028315306287002
Deardorff, D. K., & Jones, E. (2012). Intercultural competence. In D. K. Deardorff, H. de Wit, J. D. Heyl, & T. Adams (Eds.). The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education (pp. 283-303). Washington, DC: Sage.
Einbeck, K. (2002). Using literature to promote cultural fluency in study abroad programs. Die Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching German, 35(1), 59-67.
Ellis, J. M. (2018). Swedish crime fiction and study abroad: Literature, politics, and the foreigner. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 30(2), 106-116.
Fischer, D. (2001). Irish images of Germany: using literary texts in intercultural learning. Language Culture and Curriculum, 14(3), 224-234.
Gao, G. E., & Gudykunst, W. B. (1990). Uncertainty, anxiety, and adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 14, p. 301-317.
Golding, W. (1954). The lord of the flies. New York: The Berkley Publishing Group.
Gomez R., L. F. (2012). Fostering intercultural communicative competence through reading authentic literary texts in an advanced Colombian EFL classroom: A constructivist perspective. PROFILE: Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 14(1), 49-66.
Green, J. (2008). An abundance of Katherines. New York: Penguin Group.
Heck, B. (n.d.). Unterrichtsideen zu dem Roman „Tschick.“ Hannover, Germany: Akademie für Leseförderung Niederachsen. Retrieved from https://www.alf-hannover.de/unterrichtsideen-zu-dem-roman-tschick
Helms, R. M., & Tukibayeva, M. (2013). Internationalization in Action: Internationalizing the Curriculum, Part 1 – Individual courses. American Council on Education. Retrieved from https://www.acenet.edu/news-room/Pages/Internationalization-in-Action.aspx
Herrndorf, W. (2014). Why We Took the Car. Levine Books: New York
Herrndorf, W. (2012). Tschick. Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag: Berlin.
Hinton, S. E. (1967). The outsiders. New York: The Viking Press.
Hubbard, J. D., & Maloley, K. L. (2013). Teaching a balanced view of Germany to K-6 teacher candidates: dispelling negative stereotypes and internationalizing the curriculum. The Journal of Social Studies Research, 37, 209-219.
Huck, C. S., Kiefer, B. Z., Hepler, S., & Hickman, J. (2004). Children’s Literature in the Elementary School. Eighth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hunter, A. (2008). Transformative learning in international education. In V. Savicki, (Ed.), Developing intercultural competence and transformation: theory, research, and application in international education (pp. 92-110). Sterling, Virginia: Stylus.
Johannes, A. H. (2018). Didaktik der literarizität: Didaktische Überlegungen zu Wolfgang Herrndorfs Romane Tschick und Bilder deiner grossen Liebe (B1-B2) (Unpublished master’s thesis). Stellenbosch University, South Africa and Leipzig University, Germany.
Kissock, C., & Richardson, P. (2010). Calling for action within the teaching profession: it is time to internationalize teacher education. Teacher Education, 21(1), 89-101.
Knight, J. (2003, Fall). Updating the definition of internationalization. International Higher Education 33, p. 2-3.
Longview Foundation for Education in World Affairs and International Understanding, Inc. (2008). Teacher Preparation for the Global Age: The Imperative for Change. Silver Spring, MD: Author.
Marx, H., & Moss, D. M. (2011a). Please mind the culture gap: Intercultural development during a teacher education study abroad program. Journal of Teacher Education, 62(1), 35-47).
Marx, H. A., & Moss, D. M. (2015). Coming home: Continuing intercultural learning during the re-entry semester following a study abroad experience. Journal of International Social Studies, 5(2), 38-53.
Marx, H. A., & Moss, D. M. (2011b). My Cultural Awareness Profile. Washington, D.C.: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.
Merryfield, M. M. (2000). Why aren’t teachers being prepared to teach for diversity, equity, and global interconnectedness? A study of lived experiences in the making of multicultural and global educators. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 429-443.
Moss, D. M., & Marcus, A. S. (2015). Over there: Exploring a WWII-themed short-duration study-abroad program for preservice teachers. In D. Schwarzer & B. L. Bridglall (Eds.), Promoting global competence and social justice in teacher education: Successes and challenges within local and international contexts (pp. 45-70). New York: Lexington Books.
National Council for the Social Studies. (2016). Global and International Education in Social Studies. Position Statement Retrieved from: https://www.socialstudies.org/positions/global_and_international_education
Ochoa, A. M. (2010). International education in higher education: a developing process of engagement in teacher preparation programs. Teacher Education, 21(1), 103-112.
Paesani, K. (2011). Research in language-literature instruction: Meeting the call for change? Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 161-181. DOI: 10.1017/S0267190511000043
Passig, K. (2011, January 31). Wann hat es „Tschick“ gemacht, Herr Herrndorf? Frankfurter Allgemeine. Retrieved from https://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/buecher/autoren/im-gespraech-wolfgang-herrndorf-wann-hat-es-tschick-gemacht-herr-herrndorf-1576165-p2.html?printPagedArticle=true#pageIndex_1
Philpot, C. (2010). What makes a good YA road trip novel? The Horn Book Magazine. Retrieved from: www.hbook.com/2010/07/choosing-books/horn-book-magazine/makes-good-ya-road-trip-novel/
Pitts, C. A. (2017). Internationalizing the curriculum: re-thinking pedagogical approaches to world literature and English composition. International Research and Review: Journal of Phi Beta Delta Honor Society for International Scholars, 6(2), 120-139.
ResearchWare (1997-2019). HyperRESEARCH (Version 2.8). [Computer Software]. Maryland: ResearchWare, Inc.
Rodríguez, L. M. G., & Puyal, M. B. (2012). Promoting intercultural competence through literature in CLIL contexts. Atlantis: Journal of the Spanish Association of Anglo-American Studies, 34(2), 105-124.
Rosenblatt, L. M. (1978). The reader, the text, the poem: The transactional theory of the literary work. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press.
Rosenblatt, L. M. (1983). Literature as exploration. New York: The Modern Language Association of America.
Rumbley, L. E., Altbach, P. G., & Reisberg, L. (2012). Internationalization within the higher education context. In D. K. Deardorff, H. de Wit, J. D. Heyl, & T. Adams (Eds.). The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education (pp. 3-26). Washington, DC: Sage.
Sachar, L. (2000). Holes. New York: Yearling.
Salinger, J. D. (1951). Catcher in the rye. New York: Little, Brown.
Schwarzer, D., & Bridglall, B. L. (2015). Internationalizing teacher education: Successes and challenges within local and international contexts. In D. Schwarzer, & B. L. Bridglall. (Eds.). Promoting Global Competence and Social Justice in Teacher Education: Successes and Challenges within Local and International Contexts. (pp. 1-17). New York: Lexington Books.
Scott, V. M., & Huntington, J. A. (2002). Reading culture: Using literature to develop C2 competence. Foreign Language Annals, 35(6), 622-631.
Short, K. G., Day, D., & Schroeder, J. (Eds.) (2016). Teaching globally: reading the world through literature. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers.
Spitzberg, B. H., & Changnon, G. (2009). Conceptualizing Intercultural Competence. In D. K. Deardorff (Ed.). The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence. (pp. 2- 52). California: SAGE.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Stromquist, N. P., & Monkmank, K. (2014). Defining globalization and assessing its implications, revisited. In N. P. Stromquist & K. Monkman (Eds.), Globalization and education: Integration and contestation across cultures (2nd ed., pp 3-26). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Twain, M. (1885). Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. New York: Webster and Company.
Snyder, T.D., de Brey, C., and Dillow, S.A. (2019). Digest of Education Statistics 2017 (NCES 2018-070). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.
Zhao, Y. (2010). Preparing globally competent teachers: a new imperative for teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(5), 422-431.