To Understand You, I Need to Know Me:

Approximating the Study Abroad Experience Utilizing Assessment as Learning in a Glocal Classroom


  • Linda M. Dunn-Jensen California State University, Stanislaus
  • Joyce S. Osland San Jose State University
  • Pamela M. Wells San Jose State University



assessment, intercultural effectiveness, global leadership development, personal development plans


Due to Covid-19 and the inaccessibility of study abroad for some students, we successfully tested an alternative for building intercultural effectiveness -- a glocal classroom (GC) pedagogy highlighting assessment as learning. Over a 15-week course, the GC replicated the work context and job demands of expert global leaders and developed global skills via activities and simulations. Pre-posttest measures of the Intercultural Effectiveness Scale (IES) found significant improvement in all dimensions. Students with prior international experience had higher pre-test results in the world orientation and relationship development dimensions; however, students without study abroad experience approximated those results in their post-test assessment, apparently as a result of the GC. Quantitative and qualitative findings suggest that assessment, self-awareness, self-directed PDPs, well-designed simulations, receiving and giving extensive feedback, and reflection can be effective methods for moving the needle on intercultural competencies without a physical international experience.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Linda M. Dunn-Jensen, California State University, Stanislaus

Linda M. Dunn-Jensen, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor of Management at Cal State, Stanislaus. She holds a Ph.D. degree in Organizational Behavior from New York University. She teaches courses in organizational behavior, leadership, and negotiation. Dr. Dunn-Jensen’s research and consulting work focuses on organizational citizenship behavior, unconscious bias, and negotiation.Her work has been published inOrganization Management Journal,Journal of Management Education,andInternational Journal of Conflict Management.

Joyce S. Osland, San Jose State University

Joyce S. Osland, Ph. D. is a senior partner of the KozaiGroup and professor emeritus. She was the Lucas Endowed Professor of Global Leadership and Executive Director of the Global Leadership Advancement Center at San Jose State University (2008-2020). An award-winning teacher and scholar, Joyce has 160+ publications. Recent books include theAdvances in Global Leadershipseries,Global Leadership: Research, Practices, and Development,Managing Across Cultures, and theSAGE Handbook of Contemporary Cross-Cultural Management.

Pamela M. Wells, San Jose State University

Pamela M. Wells holds an M.S. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology and is lecturer in San Jose State University’s Lucas College and Graduate School of Business. She teaches Management and Global Leadership and advises two student organizations, the Latino Business Students Association and the Burmese Myanmar Associated Students. She is a managing partner of Critical Moments Safety Training, LLC and is an educational consultant for Aiyin Inc. She is a recipient of San Jose State University’s Master Teacher Award.


AAC&U, (2007). College learning for the new global century. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges & Universities.

Acheson, K., & Schneider-Bean, S. (2019). Representing the intercultural development continuum as a pendulum: Addressing the lived experiences of intercultural competence development and maintenance. European Journal of Cross-cultural Competence and Management, 5(1), 42. DOI: 10.1504/EJCCM.2019.097826 DOI:

Acheson, K., Yngve, K. N., Stahl, A., & Lan, J. (2020). Introduction: Recent research in assessment education abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 1-6. DOI: DOI:

Berdrow, I., Woolford, S., Skaletsky, M. & Bird, A. (2020). Intercultural effectiveness: Do international education experiences move the needle? Paper presentation, Academy of International Management Conference, July, 2020.

Bereiter, C., Scardamalia, M. (1989). Intentional learning as a goal of instruction. In L. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser (pp. 361-392). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bok, D. (2006). Our Underachieving Colleges: A Candid Look at How Much Students Learn and Why They Should Be Learning More. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Butler, A. C., Chapman, J. E., Forman, E. M., & Beck, A. T. 2006. The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.07.003 DOI:

Deardorff, D. (2011). Assessing intercultural competence. New Directions for Institutional Research, 149, 65-79. DOI:

Deters, J. (2017). Global leadership talent management: Successful selection of global leadership talents as an integrated process. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing Limited. DOI:

Francois, E. J. (2015). Building global education with a local perspective: An introduction to glocal higher education. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Ha-Brookshire, J. E., & Stoll, E. (2009). Teaching Global Business Using a Live Reporter in a Foreign Country: An Alternative to Study Abroad. Marketing Education Review, 19(3),17-23, DOI:10.1080/10528008.2009.11489083 DOI:

Herd, A., Cumberland, Lovely, W., & Bird, A. (2018). The use of assessment center methodology to develop students’ global leadership competencies: A conceptual framework and applied example. Advances in Global Leadership, 11, 175-196. DOI:

Howard, W., & Gunter, G. (2017). Examination of an Innovative Solution for Internationalizing the Curriculum Through Online Study Abroad. Journal of Formative Design in Learning, 1: 3-15. DOI:

Howell, W.S. (1982). The empathic communicator. University of Minnesota: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Institute of International Education (IIE) (2019). Open Doors 2019 Fast Facts. Retrieved from

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Langer, E. J., & Moldoveanu, M. (2000). The construct of mindfulness. Journal of Social Issues, 56(1), 1-9. DOI:

Lokkesmoe, K. J., Kuchinke, K. P., & Ardichvili, A. (2016). Developing cross-cultural awareness through foreign immersion programs: Implications of university study abroad research for global competency development. European Journal of Training & Development, 40(3), 155-170. DOI:10.1108/EJTD-07-2014-0048 DOI:

Meichenbaum, D. (1986). Cognitive behavior modification. In F.H. Kanfer & A.P. Goldstein (Eds.), Helping people change: A textbook of methods (3rd ed.), pp. 346-380. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.

Mendenhall, M. E., Stevens, M. J., Bird, A., Oddou, G., & Osland, J. S. (2008). Specification of the content domain of the Intercultural Effectiveness Scale. Chesterfield, MO: The Kozai Group. Retrieved from

Mendenhall, M. E., Arnardottir, A., Oddou, G., Burke, L. (2013). Developing cross-cultural competencies in management education via cognitive-behavior therapy. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 12(3), 436-451. DOI: 10.5465/amle.2012.0237 DOI:

Mendenhall, M. E., Weber, T. J., Arnardottir, A. A., & Oddou, G. R. (2017). Developing global leadership competencies: A process model. In J. S. Osland, M. Li, & M. Mendenhall (Eds.), Advances in Global Leadership, 10, 117-146. Emerald Publishing Limited. DOI:

Mezirow, J., & Associates. (1990). Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: A guide to transformative and emancipatory learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Mezirow, J. (1978). Perspective transformation. Adult Education, 28(2), 100–109. DOI:

Morris, M. W., Savani, K., & Fincher, K. (2019). Metacognition fosters cultural learning: Evidence from individual differences and situational prompts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes, 116(1), 46-68. DOI:

Ng, K. Y, Van Dyne, L., & Ang, S. (2009). From experience to experiential learning: Cultural intelligence as a learning capability for global leader development. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 8(4): 511-526. DOI:

OECD (2005). Formative Assessment: Improving Learning in Secondary Classrooms, OECD Publishing, Paris. Retrieved July 11, 2020 from DOI:

Osland, J. S., & Bird, A. (2000). Beyond sophisticated stereotyping: Cultural sensemaking in context. Academy of Management Executive, 14(1), 65-77.

Osland, J. S., Bird, A., & Oddou, G. (2012). The context of expert global leadership. Advances in Global Leadership, 7, 107-124. DOI:

Osland, J., Li, M., Petrone, M., & Mendenhall, M. E. (2019). Global leadership development in the university setting and future directions for advancing global leadership research. In J. Osland, M. E. Mendenhall, & M. Li (Eds.), Advances in Global Leadership, 11, pp. 347-366. Bingley, UK: Emerald. DOI:

Osland, J. S., Oddou, G., Bird, A., & Osland, A. (2013) Exceptional global leadership as cognitive expertise in the domain of global change. European Journal of International Management, 7(5), 517-534. DOI:

Patel, F., & Lynch, H. (2013). Glocalization as an alternative to internationalization in higher education: Embedding positive glocal learning perspectives. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 25(2), 223-230.

Patel, F. (2017). Deconstructing internationalization: Advocating glocalization in international higher education. Journal of International & Global Studies, 8(2), 64-82.

Reseigh Long, D. (1997). The experiential course: An alternative to study abroad for nontraditional students. Foreign Language Annals, 30(3), 301-310. DOI:

Robertson, R. (1995). Glocalization: Time–space and homogeneity–heterogeneity. In M. Featherstone, S. Lash, & R. Robertson (Eds.), Global modernities 25-44. London: Sage.

Rowe, J. (2012). Assessment as learning. Retrieved July 10, 2020 from

Schraw, G. (1998). Promoting general metacognitive awareness. Instructional Science, 26(1/2), 113-125. DOI:

Shipmann, J. S., Ash, R. A., Carr, L., Hesketh, B., Pearlman, K., Battista, M., Eyde, L. D., Kehoe, J., Prien, E. P., & Sanchez, J. I. (2000). The practice of competency modeling. Personnel Psychology, 53(3), 703-740. . DOI:

Soria, K. M., & Troisi, J. (2014). Internationalization at home alternatives to study abroad: Implications for students' development of global, international, and intercultural competencies. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(3): 261-280. DOI:

Thomas, D. C. (2006). Domain and development of cultural intelligence: The importance of mindfulness. Group and Organizational Management, 31(1), 78-99. DOI: 10.1177/1059601105275266 DOI:

Vande Berg, M. (2007). Intervening in the learning of U.S. students abroad. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3), 392-398. DOI:

Vande Berg, M. (2009). Intervening in student learning abroad: A research-based inquiry. Intercultural Education, 20(4), 15-27. DOI:

Vande Berg, M., Paige, R. M., & Lou, K. H. (2012). Student learning abroad: What our students are learning, what they’re not, and what we can do about it. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

West, C. (2019). Breaking Barriers to Study Abroad. International Educator, 28(4), 30-35.

Weurlander, M., Soderberg, M., Scheja, M., Hult, H., & Wernerson, A. (2012). Exploring formative assessment as a tool for learning: Students’ experiences of different methods of formative assessment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 37(6), 747-760. DOI:

Yamazaki, Y., & Keyes, D. C. (2017). An experiential approach to cross-cultural learning: A review and integration of competencies for successful expatriate adaptation. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3(4), 362-379. DOI: 10.5465/AMLE.2004.15112543 DOI:

Yorke, M. (2003). Formative assessment in higher education: Moves towards theory and the enhancement of pedagogic practice. Higher Education, 45(4), 477-501. DOI:



How to Cite

Dunn-Jensen, L., Osland, J., & Wells, P. (2021). To Understand You, I Need to Know Me: : Approximating the Study Abroad Experience Utilizing Assessment as Learning in a Glocal Classroom. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 33(1), 206–230.