Moving through Autonomy toward Interdependence: A Framework for Examining Student Perceptions of Development in a Hybrid Model Study Abroad Program
Keywords:study abroad, student development, instrumental independence, emotional independence, interdependence
Examining how students develop abroad within a given study abroad program model can provide insight into their experiences and how to best support them. This study explores the experiences of students who studied abroad through one of Midwest College’s five hybrid study abroad programs during the 2016-2017 academic year. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine students to determine the participants’ perceptions of their personal development, using Chickering and Reisser’s (1993) third vector of student development, moving through autonomy toward interdependence, as a theoretical framework. The findings revealed that participants perceived they had grown in all three areas of Chickering and Reisser’s third vector: instrumental independence, emotional independence and interdependence, providing new insight and perspective into the growing body of research regarding student development in study abroad program models.
Basit, Tehmina N. Conducting Research in Educational Contexts. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2010.
Bell, Judith. Doing Your Research Project: A Guide for First-Time Researchers in Education, Health and Social Sciences. 5th ed., Open University Press, 2010.
Black, H. Tyrone, and David L. Duhon. “Assessing the Impact of Business Study Abroad Programs on Cultural Awareness and Personal Development.” Journal of Education for Business, vol. 81, no.3, 2006, pp. 140-144. doi:10.3200/joeb.81.3.140-144.
Bolen, Mell C. “Introduction.” A Guide to Outcome Assessments in Education Abroad, edited by Mell C. Bolen. The Forum on Education Abroad, 2014, pp. 1-6.
British Educational Research Association. Ethical Guidelines for Educational Research. 4th ed., BERA, 2018.
Brockington, Joseph L., and Margaret D. Wiedenhoeft. “The Liberal Arts and Global Citizenship. Fostering Intercultural Engagement through Integrative Experiences and Structured Reflection.” The Handbook of Practice and Research in Study Abroad, edited by Ross Lewin. Routledge, 2009, pp. 117-132.
Carlson, Jerry S., et al. Study Abroad: The Experience of American Undergraduates in Western Europe and the United States. Abridged ed., Council on International Education Exchange, 1991.
Chickering, Arthur W., and Linda Reisser. Education and Identity. 2nd ed., Jossey-Bass, 1993.
Chickering, Arthur W. Education and Identity. Jossey-Bass, 1969.
Coffey, Amanda, and Paul Atkinson. Making Sense of Qualitative Data: Complementary Research Strategies. Sage, 1996.
Cohen, Louis, et al. Research Methods in Education. 7th ed., Routledge, 2011.
Creswell, John W. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches. 4th ed., Sage, 2014.
Deardorff, Darla K. “Understanding the Challenges of Assessing Global Citizenship.” The Handbook of Practice and Research in Student Abroad: Higher Education and the Quest for Global Citizenship, edited by Ross Lewin, Routledge, 2009, pp. 346-364.
Denscombe, Martyn. The Good Research Guide for Small-Scale Social Research Projects. 4th ed., Open University Press, 2010.
Dolby, Nadine. “Encountering an American Self: Study Abroad and National Identity.” Comparative Education Review, vol. 48, no. 2, 2004, pp. 150-173.
Dwyer, Mary M. Charting the Impact of Studying Abroad. International Educator, vol. 13, 2004, pp. 14-20.
Engle, Lilli and John Engle. “Study Abroad Levels: Toward a Classification of Program Types.” Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, vol. 9, 2003. pp. 1-20.
Erikson, Erik H. Identity: Youth and Crisis. W. W. Norton & Company, 1968.
Evans, Nancy J., et al. Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. 2nd ed., Jossey-Bass, 2010.
Frankfort-Nachmias, Chava, and David Nachmias. Research Methods in the Social Sciences. 6th ed., Worth Publishers, 2000.
Gibbs, Graham R., The SAGE Qualitative Research Kit: Analyzing Qualitative Data. London: Sage, 2007.
Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Harvard University Press, 1982.
Hanouille, Leon, and Peter Leuner. “Island Programs: Myths and Realities in International Education.” World Education News and Review, 2001.
Hayward, Fred M., and Laura M. Siaya. Public Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge: A Report on Two National Surveys about International Educations. American Council on Education, 2001.
Heisel, Margaret H. and Gerald R. Kissler. Financial Strategies for Expanding Study Abroad: Models, Mission, Management, and Means for Growth. NAFSA: Association of International Educators, 2010.
Hendrickson, B., et al. “An Analysis of Friendship Networks, Social Connectedness, Homesickness, and Satisfaction Levels of International Students.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations, vol. 35, 2011, pp. 281-295.
Hennink, Monique, et al. Qualitative Research Methods. Sage, 2015.
Institute of International Education (IIE). Open Doors 2016 Executive Summary. IIE, 2017.
Josselson, Ruthellen. Revising Herself: The Story of Women's Identity from College to Midlife. Oxford University Press, 1996.
Kegan, Robert. The Evolving Self: Problem and Process in Human Development. Harvard University Press, 1982.
Kehl, Kevin, and Jason Morris. “Differences in Global-Mindedness between Short-Term and Semester-Long Study Abroad Participants at Selected Private Universities.” Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, vol. 15, 2008, pp. 67-79.
Kortegast, Carrie A., and M. Terral Boisfontaine. “Beyond “It Was Good”: Students’ Post–Study Abroad Practices for Negotiating Meaning.” Journal of College Student Development, vol. 56, no. 8, 2015, pp. 812-828. doi:10.1353/csd.2015.0091.
Lathrop, Bobbie Jane Johnstone. The Influence of Study Abroad Programs on U.S. Student’s Psychosocial Development. 1999. University of Georgia, PhD dissertation.
Lewin, Ross, and Greg van Kirk. “It’s Not About You: The UConn Social Entrepreneur Corps Global Commonwealth Study Abroad Model.” The Handbook of Practice and Research in Study Abroad: Higher Education and the Quest for Global Citizenship, edited by Ross Lewin, Routledge, 2009, pp. 543-564.
Mapp, Susan C. “Effect of Short-term Study Abroad Programs on Students' Cultural Adaptability.” Journal of Social Work Education, vol. 48, no. 4, 2011: pp. 727-737. doi:10.5175/JSWE.2012.201100103
Merriam, Sharan B. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education. Revised and expanded ed., Jossey-Bass, 1998.
---. Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation. Jossey-Bass, 2009.
Newton Suter, W. Introduction to Educational Research: A Critical Thinking Approach. Sage, 2012.
Norris, Emily M., and Mary M. Dwyer. Testing Assumptions: The Impact of Two Study Abroad Program Models. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, vol. 11, 2005, pp. 121-142.
Opper, Susan, et al. Impacts of Study Abroad Programmes on Students and Graduates. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1990.
Paige, R. Michael. Education for the Intercultural Experience, edited by R. Michael Paige. Intercultural Press, 1993, pp. 1-19.
Paige, R. Michael, and Michael Vande Berg. “Why Students Are and Are Not Learning Abroad: A Review of Recent Research.” Student Learning Abroad: What Our Students Are Learning, What They're Not, and What We Can Do about It, edited by Michael Vande Berg, et al., Stylus Publishing, 2012, pp. 29-58.
Paige, R. Michael, et al. “The Maximizing Study Abroad Project: Toward a Pedagogy for Culture and Language Learning.” Student Learning Abroad: What Our Students Are Learning, What They're Not, and What We Can Do about It, edited by Michael Vande Berg, et al., Stylus Publishing, 2012, pp. 284-307.
Pascarella, Ernest T., and Patrick T. Terenzini. How College Affects Students: A Third Decade of Research. Jossey-Bass, 2005.
Salisbury, Mark H., et al. “The Effect of Study Abroad on Intercultural Competence among Undergraduate College Students.” Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, vol. 50, no. 1, 2013: pp. 1-20.
Sanford, Nevitt. Self and Society. Atherton Press. 1966.
Savicki, Victor, and Eric Cooley. “American Identity in Study Abroad Students: Contrasts, Changes, Correlates.” Journal of College Student Development, vol. 52, no. 3, 2011: pp. 339-449.
Scally, Jayme. Intercultural Development Competence in US Undergraduates: A Comparison of Three Study Abroad Program Models in Spain. 2016. University of York, PhD thesis.
Schuh, John H., et al. Student Services: A Handbook for the Profession. 5th ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
Shuy, Roger W. “In-Person versus Telephone Interviewing.” Handbook of Interview Research: Context and Method, edited by Jaber F. Gubrium and James A. Holstein, Sage, 2002, pp. 537-556.
Sol, Niki. “Fostering Intercultural Identity during Study Abroad to Strengthen Intercultural Competence.” Cultural Awareness and Competency Development in Higher Education, edited by Lynda Leavitt, et al. IGI Global, 2017, pp. 325-345.
Stearns, Peter N. Educating Global Citizens in Colleges and Universities. Routledge, 2009.
Stebleton, Michael J., et al. “The High Impact of Education Abroad: College Students’ Engagement in International Experiences and the Development of Intercultural Competencies.” Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, vol. 22, 2016, pp. 1-24.
The Forum on Education Abroad. The Forum on Education Abroad: Education Abroad Glossary. The Forum on Education Abroad, 2011.
Thomlison, T. Dean. “Effects of a Study-Abroad Program on University Students: Toward a Predictive Theory of Intercultural Contact.” Effects of a Study Abroad Program on University Students: Toward a Predictive Theory of Intercultural Contact. U.S. Department of Education, 1991.
Twombly, Susan B., et al. Study Abroad in a New Global Century: Renewing the Promise, Refining the Purpose. Jossey-Bass, 2012.
Ungar, Sanford J. “The Study Abroad Solution: How to Open the American Mind.” Foreign Affairs, 2016, pp. 3-28.
Vande Berg, Michael, et al. “The Georgetown Consortium Project: Interventions for Student Learning Abroad.” Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, vol. 18, 2009, pp. 1-75.
Vande Berg, Michael. “Student Learning Abroad: Paradigms and Assumptions.” Vande Berg, Michael, et al. Student Learning Abroad: What Our Students Are Learning, What They're Not, and What We Can Do about It. Stylus Publishing, 2012, pp. 3-28.
White, David B., and Albert B. Hood. “An Assessment of the Validity of Chickering's Theory of Student Development.” Journal of College Student Development, vol. 30, no. 4, 1989: pp. 354-361.
Wiedenhoeft, Margaret Davis. Study Abroad Program Design, Personal Development, and Intercultural Effectiveness. 2011. Western Michigan University, PhD dissertation.
Williams, Tracy Rundstrom. “Exploring the Impact of Study Abroad on Students’ Intercultural Communication Skills: Adaptability and Sensitivity.” Journal of Studies in International Education, vol. 9, no. 4, 2005: pp. 356-371.
Williams, Tracy Rundstrom. “The Reflective Model of Intercultural Competency: A Multidimensional, Qualitative Approach to Study Abroad Assessment.” Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, vol. 18, 2009: pp. 289-306.
Winston, Roger B., et al. Preliminary Technical Manual for the Student Development Task and Lifestyle Assessment. Student Development Associates, Inc., 1999.
Wolcott, Harry F. Transformative Qualitative Data: Description, Analysis, and Interpretation. Sage, 1994.
Woolf, Michael. “Impossible Things before Breakfast: Myths in Education Abroad.” Journal of Studies in International Education, vol. 11, no. 3-4, 2007: pp. 496-509. doi:10.1177/1028315307304186.
Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 5th ed. Sage, 2014.