Linguistic Loneliness and Study Abroad
Keywords:Study abroad, Language learning, Versant Language Test, Relationships, Linguistic improvement
This article considers the conflict between students’ desire to improve their target language skills and their desire for belonging and community . The stud y, conducted over three years, examines student perceptions of barriers to target language gain during semester long study abroad. Participants completed surveys, took the Versant Language Test before and after their study abroad experience, and partici pated in a post program interview . Results suggest that students experience conflicting priorities in decisions governing native language versus target language use during study abroad. Although some persist in speaking the target language with their co national peers, they find it unsatisfying because they are unable to meet their social needs . Valuing relationships over linguistic improvements, students resort to speaking their native language among themselves during study abroad . The research ers suggest strategies for how to best prepare students to reconcile these tensions.
Allen, H. (2010). Interactive contact as linguistic affordance during short-term study abroad: Myth or reality? Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 19, 1-26.
Bai, J. (2016). Development and validation of the Acculturative Stress Scale for Chinese college students in the United States (ASSCS). Psychological Assessment, 28(4), 443.
Brecht, R., Davidson, D., & Ginsberg, R. B. (1995). Predictors of foreign language gain during study abroad. Second language acquisition in a study abroad context, 37-66. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Brecht, R. D., & Robinson, J. L. (1995). On the value of formal instruction in study abroad. Second language acquisition in a study abroad context, 318-334. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Cadd, M. (2012). Encouraging students to engage with native speakers during study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 45(2), 229-245.
Churchill, E., & DuFon, M. A. (2006). Evolving threads in study abroad research. In M. A. Dufon & E. Churchill (Eds.), Language learners in study abroad contexts (pp. 1-27). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Collentine, J., & Freed, B. F. (2004). Learning context and its effects on second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(02), 153-171.
DeKeyser, R. (2007). Study abroad as foreign language practice. In R. DeKeyser (Ed.), Practice in a second language: Perspectives from applied linguistics and cognitive psychology (pp. 208-226). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Dewey, D. P., Belnap, R. K., & Hillstrom, R. (2013). Social network development, language use, and language acquisition during study abroad: Arabic language learners’ perspectives. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 22, 84-110.
Freed, B. F. (Ed.). (1995). Second language acquisition in a study abroad context. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Freed, B. F. (1995). What makes us think that students who study abroad become fluent? Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (pp. 123-148). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Freed, B. F., Dewey, D. P., Segalowitz, N., & Halter, R. (2004). The language contact profile. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(2), 349-356.
Freed, B. F., Segalowitz, N., & Dewey, D. P. (2004). Context of learning and second language fluency in French: Comparing regular classroom, study abroad, and intensive domestic immersion programs. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(2), 275-301.
Goldoni, F. (2013). Students’ immersion experiences in study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 46(3), 359-376.
Hernández, T. A. (2010). The relationship among motivation, interaction, and the development of second language oral proficiency in a study‐abroad context. The Modern Language Journal, 94(4), 600-617.
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132.
Ife, A. (2000). Language learning and residence abroad: How self-directed are students? The Language Learning Journal, 22(1), 30-37.
Kinginger, C. (2009). Language learning and study abroad: A critical reading of research. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kinginger, C. (2010). American students abroad: Negotiation of difference? Language Teacher, 43(2), 216-27.
Lafford, B. A. (1995). Getting into, through and out of a survival situation. Second language acquisition in a study abroad context (pp. 97-121). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Magnan, S. S., & Back, M. (2007). Social interaction and linguistic gain during study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 40(1), 43-61.
Martinsen, R. A., Baker, W., Dewey, D. P., Bown, J., & Johnson, C. (2010). Exploring diverse settings for language acquisition and use: Comparing study abroad, service learning abroad, and foreign language housing. Applied Language Learning, 20(1-2), 45-69.
Mendelson, V. G. (2004, Fall). Hindsight is 20/20: Student perceptions of language learning and the study abroad experience. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 43-63.
NVivo qualitative data analysis software. QSR International Pty Ltd., Version 8, 2008, Version 9, 2010.
O'Reilly, A., Ryan, D., & Hickey, T. (2010). The psychological well-being and sociocultural adaptation of short-term international students in Ireland. Journal of College Student Development, 51(5), 584-598.
Pyper, M. J., & Slagter, C. (2015). Competing priorities: Student perceptions of helps and hindrances to language acquisition during study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 26(224), 83-106.
Rosenthal, D. A., Russell, J., & Thomson, G. (2007). Social connectedness among international students at an Australian university. Social Indicators Research, 84(1), 71-82.
Sawir, E., Marginson, S., Deumert, A., Nyland, C., & Ramia, G. (2008). Loneliness and international students: An Australian study. Journal of Studies in International Education, 12(2), 148-180.
Schmidt‐Rinehart, B. C., & Knight, S. M. (2004). The homestay component of study abroad: Three perspectives. Foreign Language Annals, 37(2), 254-262.
Sovic, S. (2009). Hi-bye friends and the herd instinct: International and home students in the creative arts. Higher Education, 58(6), 747-761.
Smith, D. I. (2009). Learning from the stranger: Christian faith and cultural diversity. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
Smith, D. I., & Carvill, B. M. (2000). The gift of the stranger: Faith, hospitality, and foreign language learning. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (1995). Problems in output and the cognitive processes they generate: A step towards second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 16(3), 371-391.
Starr-Glass, D. (2016). The self, the other, and the international student. Journal of International Students, 6(1), 314-318.
Versant Spanish Test Validation. Retrieved from http://www.versanttest.com/technology/VersantSpanishTestValidation.pdf
Versant Spanish Test and ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interviews Correlation. Retrieved from http://www.pearsonhighered.com/versant/assets/Fact%20Sheet_Versant%20Spanish_comparison_to_ACTFL_Level.pdf
Wang, K. T., Heppner, P. P., Wang, L., & Zhu, F. (2015). Cultural intelligence trajectories in new international students: Implications for the development of cross-cultural competence. International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, 4(1), 51.
Wei, M., Wang, K. T., & Ku, T. Y. (2012). A development and validation of the Perceived Language Discrimination Scale. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18(4), 340.
Wilkinson, S. (1998). Study abroad from the participants’ perspective: A challenge to common beliefs. Foreign Language Annals, 31(1), 23-39.
Yan, K., & Berliner, D. C. (2013). Chinese international students’ personal and sociocultural stressors in the United States. Journal of College Student Development, 54(1), 62-84.