Recognizing the Impact of Study Abroad on Women Business Students: Results from a Mixed Methods Global Competency Survey
Keywords:study abroad and women, global competency, study abroad and gender, study abroad and business students, study abroad and mixed methods
This article presents the results of a mixed methods survey collected from male and female business students that have studied abroad and not studied abroad. The survey of business students indicates significant differences between men and women that have studied abroad regarding motivation and outcomes of study abroad experience. This paper describes the significant outcomes of study abroad emphasizing the effects of study abroad on women’s global competency. The discussion, limitations, and recommendations for future research, program development, and career integration for women are also presented. The goal of this paper is to have readers reconsider the relevancy of study abroad for women.
Alizadeh, S., & Chavan, M. (2015). Cultural competence dimensions and outcomes: a systematic review of the literature. Health & Social Care in the Community, 24(6), 117–130. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12293 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12293
Anderson, P. H., Hubbard, A., & Lawton, L. (2015). Student motivation to study abroad and their intercultural development. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 26(Fall), 39–52. Retrieved from http://0-search.ebscohost.com.umhblib.umhb.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1084564&site=ehost-live&scope=cite DOI: https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v26i1.354
Anderson, P. H., & Lawton, L. (2011). Intercultural development: Study abroad vs. on-campus study. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21(Fall), 86–108.
Bandura, A. (2003). Bandura’s social cognitive theory: An introduction. San Luis Obispo, CA: Davidson Films, Inc. Retrieved from http://search.alexanderstreet.com/view/work/1641092
Bandyopadhyay, S., & Bandyopadhyay, K. (2015). Factors influencing student participation in college study abroad programs. Journal of International Education Research, 11(2), 87–94. Retrieved from http://0-search.ebscohost.com.umhblib.umhb.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1060059&site=ehost-live&scope=cite DOI: https://doi.org/10.19030/jier.v11i2.9189
Black, H. T., & Duhon, D. L. (2006). Assessing the impact of business study abroad programs on cultural awareness and personal development. Journal of Education for Business, 81(3), 140–144. https://doi.org/10.3200/JOEB.81.3.140-144 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3200/JOEB.81.3.140-144
Braskamp, L. A, Braskamp, D. C., Merrill, K. (2009). Assessing progress in global learning and development of students with education abroad experiences. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 18(Fall), 101–118. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ883693.pdf%5Cnhttp://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=EJ883693%5Cnhttp://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=EJ883693 DOI: https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v18i1.256
Bryant, K. M., & Soria, K. M. (2015). College students’ sexual orientation, gender identity, and participation in study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 25, 91–106. Retrieved from http://frontiersjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/BRYANT-SORIA-FrontiersXXV-CollegeStudentsSexualOrientationGenderIdentityandParticipationinStudyAbroad.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v25i1.347
Bucker, J., Furrer, O., & Weem, T. P. (2016). Robustness and cross-cultural equivalence of the cultural intelligence scale (CQS). Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, 4(3), 300–325. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JGM-05-2016-0022
Clarke, I., Flaherty, T. B., Wright, N. D., & McMillen, R. M. (2009). Student intercultural proficiency from study abroad programs. Journal of Marketing Education, 31(2), 173–181. https://doi.org/10.1177/0273475309335583 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0273475309335583
Commission on the Abraham Lincoln study abroad fellowship program. (2005). Global competence national needs, 1–58.
Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2017). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
DeGraaf, D., Slagter, C., Larsen, K., & Ditta, E. (2013). the long-term personal and professional impacts of participating in a study abroad program. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 23(Fall 2013), 42–59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v23i1.328
Dessoff, A. (2006). Who’s not going abroad? International Educator, 15(2), 20–27.
Education, I. of I. (2016). Fields of Study of U.S. Study Abroad Students, 2004/05-2014/15. Retrieved from https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Open-Doors/Data/US-Study-Abroad/Fields-of-Study
Evans, S.Y. (2009). African american women scholars and international research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's legacy of study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 18, 77-100.
Friese, S. (2014). Qualitative data analysis with ATLAS.ti. SAGE.
Gasta, C. M., & Gasta, C. M. (2008). Cross-cultural knowledge, business practices , and student learning via study abroad. Global Business Languages, 13(4), 29–44.
Glasser, B. & Strauss, A. (1999). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. New York: Aldine de Gruytery
Griffith, R. L., Wolfeld, L., Armon, B. K., Rios, J., & Liu, O. L. (2016). Assessing Intercultural Competence in Higher Education : Existing Research and Future Directions. ETS Research Report. https://doi.org/10.1002/ets2.12112 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ets2.12112
Hammer, M. (2012). The intercultural development inventory: A new fronier in assessment and development of intercultural competence. In M. Vande Berg, R. Paige, & K. H. Lou (Eds.), Students Learning Abroad (pp. 115–136). Sterling: Stylus Publishing, LLC. Retrieved from http://spiritualityandculture.com/uploads/Hammer_Study_Abroad_Article_2012__For_Education_.pdf
Heffron, S., & Maresco, P. A. (2014). The value of international experiences for business students: Measuring business student attitudes toward study abroad. Journal of International Students, 4(4), 351–362. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v4i4.454
Heinzmann, S., Kunzle, R., Schallhart, N., & Muller, M. (2015). The effect of study abroad on intercultural competence: Results from a longitudinal quasi-experimental study. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 26(Fall), 187–208. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2015.1073737 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2015.1073737
Hermans, M., et al. (2017). Attitudes towards Women's Career Advancement in Latin America: The Moderating Impact of Perceived Company International Proactiveness. Journal of International Business Studies. 48: 90-112. DOI 10.1057/s41267-016-0039-7.
Holtbruegge, D., & Engelhard, F. (2015). Study stays abroad, individual motivations, cultural intelligence and the mediating role of cultural boundary spanning. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 15(3), amle.2015.0128. https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2015.0128 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2015.0128
Hunter, B., White, G. P., & Godbey, G. (2006). What Does It Mean to Be Globally Competent? Journal of Studies in
Institute of International Education. (2018). IIE Releases Open Doors 2018 Data. Press Release. Retrieved from https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Open-Doors/Data/US-Study-Abroad/Fields-of-Study
Johnson, R. B., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed methods research: a research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14–26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X033007014
Jones, S. (2017, June). White men account for 72% of corporate leadership at 16 of the fortune 500 companies. Fortune. Retrieved from http://fortune.com/2017/06/09/white-men-senior-executives-fortune-500-companies-diversity-data/
Kobayashi, Y. (2007). Japanese working women and english study abroad. World Englishes, 26(1), 62-71, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2007.00488.x
Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). Learning styles and learning spaces : enhancing experiential learning in higher education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4(2), 193–212. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2005.17268566
Kurt, M. R., Olitsky, N. H., & Geis, P. (2013). Assessing global awareness over short-term study abroad sequence : a factor analysis. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 23(Fall), 22–41. Retrieved from http://www.frontiersjournal.com/documents/FrontiersXXIII-Fall2013-KurtOlitskyGeis.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v23i1.327
Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815355
Madsen, S. R. (Ed.). (2017). Hanbook on research on gender and leadership. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4337/9781785363863
Malterud, K., Siersma, V. D., & Guassora, A. D. (2015). Sample size in qualitative interview studies: Guided by information power. Qualitative Health Research, 26(13), 1753–1760. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732315617444 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732315617444
Mapp, S. C. (2012). Effect of short-term study abroad programs on students’ cultural adaptability. Journal of Social Work Education, 48(4), 727–737. https://doi.org/10.5175/JSWE.2012.201100103 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5175/JSWE.2012.201100103
Martin, S. M., Jahani, S., & Rosenblatt, K. (2016). Educating young women to be global leaders: A model. Voluntas, 27(3), 1494–1511. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-016-9702-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-016-9702-7
Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H. C. (2013). Assessing cross-cultural competence: a review of available tests. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(6), 849–873. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022113493716 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022113493716
Murrell, A.J., Olson, J.E., Frieze, I.H. (2010). Sexual harassment and gender discrimination: A longitudinal study of female managers. Journal of Social Issues, 51(1), 139-149. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1995.tb01313.x
Ng, E. S., & Sears, G. J. (2017). The glass ceiling in context: the influence of CEO gender, recruitment practices and firm internationalisation on the representation of women in management. Human Resource Management
Ngunjiri, F. W., & Madsen, S. R. (Eds.). (2015). Women as global leaders. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
Nguyen, N. T., Biderman, M. D., & Mcnary, L. D. (2010). A validation study of the Cross- Cultural Adaptability Inventory*. International Journal of Training and Development, 14(2), 112–129. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2419.2010.00345.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2419.2010.00345.x
Olson, C., & Kroeger, K. R. (2001). Global competency and intercultural sensitivity. Journal of Studies in International Education, 5(2), 116–137. https://doi.org/10.1177/102831530152003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/102831530152003
Olson, J. E., & Lalley, K. (2012). Evaluating a short-term, first-year study abroad program for business and engineering undergraduates: understanding the student learning experience. Journal of Education for Business, 87(6), 325–332. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832323.2011.627889 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08832323.2011.627889
Pedersen, P. J. (2010). Assessing intercultural effectiveness outcomes in a year-long study abroad program. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34, 70–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2009.09.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2009.09.003
Redden, E. (2008). Women abroad and men at home. Inside Higher Ed, (2008), 1–4. Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Women+Abroad+and+Men+at+Home#7
Rexeisen, R. J., & Al-Khatib, J. (2009). Assurance of learning and study abroad: a case study. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 20(3), 192–207. https://doi.org/10.1080/08975930903099077 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08975930903099077
Rhode, D. L. (2017). Women and leadership. New York: Oxford University Press.
Saldana, J. (2013). The coding manual for qualitative researchers (Second). Los Angeles: SAGE.
Salisbury, M. H., Paulsen, M. B., & Pascarella, E. T. (2010). To see the world or stay at home: Applying an integrated student choice model to explore the gender gap in the inent to study abroad. Research in Higher Education, 51(7), 615–640. https://doi.org/10.1007/sl
Shadowen, N. L., Chieffo, L. P., & Guerra, N. G. (2015). The Global Engagement Measurement Scale (GEMS): a new scale for assessing the impact of education abroad and campus internationalization. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 26(Fall), 231–247. Retrieved from http://0-search.ebscohost.com.umhblib.umhb.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1084447&site=ehost-live&scope=cite DOI: https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v26i1.368
Stebleton, M. J., Soria, K. M., & Cherney, B. (2013). The high impact of education abroad : College students’ engagement in international experiences and the development of intercultural competencies. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 22(1), 1–24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v22i1.316
Stemler, S. E., Imada, T., & Sorkin, C. (2014). Development and validation of the Wesleyan Intercultural Competence Scale ( WICS ): A tool for measuring the impact of study abroad experiences. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 24(Fall), 25–47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v24i1.335
Tarrant, M. A., Rubin, D. L., & Stoner, L. (2014). The added value of study abroad. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(2), 141–161. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315313497589 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315313497589
TerraDotta. (2014). Tackling the gender gap in study abroad, (July).
Thirolf, K. Q. (2014). Male college student perceptions of intercultural and study abroad programs. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 51(3), 246–258. https://doi.org/10.1515/jsarp-2014-0026 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jsarp-2014-0026
Thomas, D. C. (2017). Measuring cultural intelligence: implications and opportunities. Rutgers Business Review, 2(2), 205–211. Retrieved from https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/ddcf9a_38ec3eb8a83146ff833e1413ecf73040.pdf
Twombly, S. B. (1995). Piropos and Friendships : Gender and Culture Clash in Study Abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 1(Fall), 1–16.
Vande Berg, M., Paige, M. R., & Lou, K. H. (2012). Student learning abroad : What our students are learning, what they’re not, and what we can do about it. Sterling: Stylus Publishing, LLC.
Vande Berg, M., Paige, R. M., & Connor-Linton, J. (2009). The Georgetown consortium project: Interventions for student learning abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 18(Fall), 1–75. Retrieved from http://www.frontiersjournal.com/documents/FrontiersXVIII-Fall09-VandeBerg-ConnorLinton-Paige_000.pdf%5Cnhttps://cwil.saintmarys.edu/files/cwil/FrontiersXVIII-Fall09-VandeBerg-ConnorLinton-Paige_000.pdf
Williams, T. R. (2005). Exploring the impact of study abroad on students’ intercultural communication skills: adaptability and sensitivity. Journal of Studies in International Education, 9(4), 356–371. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315305277681 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315305277681