The Relationship between International Study Tour Effects and the Personality Variables of Self-Monitoring and Core Self-Evaluations
The purpose of this article is to extend the existing literature by assessing the effects of an international business study tour in terms of participants’ perceived cross-cultural connectivity and professional development, and then examining those results in light of two personality traits among participants— self-monitoring and core self-evaluations.
Armstrong, J., & Overton, T. (1977). Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research, 14, 396–402.
Billings, R.S., & Wroten. S.P. (1978). Use of path analysis in industrial/organizational psychology: Criticisms and suggestions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 677–688.
Boudreau, J. W., Boswell, W. R., Judge, T. A., & Bretz Jr., R. D. (2001). Personality and cognitive ability as predictors of job search among employed managers. Personnel Psychology, 54(1), 25–26.
Brokaw, S. C. (1996). Planning, organizing, and executing short term international exposures for U.S. students of marketing and business: An alternative method. Marketing Education Review, 6(3), 87–93.
Business students flock to DePaul study abroad seminars in Cuba, Chile, Greece, Thailand, Hong Kong in December. (2002, November 18). AScribe Newswire.
Caldwell, D., & O’Reilly, C. (1982). Boundary spanning and individual performance: The impact of self-monitoring. Journal of Applied Psychology, 16, 124–127.
Caligiuri, P. M., & Day, D. V. (2000). Effects of self-monitoring on technical, contextual, and assignment-specific performance. Group & 0rganization Management, 25(2), 154–174.
Cole, M. S., Field, H. S., & Harris, S. G. (2004). Student learning motivation and psychological hardiness: Interactive effects on students’ reactions to a management class. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 3(1),
Conway, J. M., & Huffcutt, A. I. (2003). A review and evaluation of exploratory factor analysis practices in organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 6(2), 147–168.
Day, D. V., Unckless, A. L., Schleicher, D. J., & Hiller, N. J. (2002). Selfmonitoring personality at work: A meta-analytic investigation of construct validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 390–401.
Duke, C. R. (2000). Study abroad learning activities: A synthesis and comparison. Journal of Marketing Education, 22(2), 155–165.
French, W. L. (2003). Human resources management. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Gordon, P. & Smith, D.K. (1992). Planning, organizing, and executing short term international exposures for U.S. students of marketing and business. Marketing Education Review, 2, 47–53.
Gudykunst, W. B., Yang, S., & Nishida, T. (1987). Cultural differences in selfconsciousness and self-monitoring. Communication Research 14(1), 7–34.
Harrison, J. K., Chadwick, M., & Scales, M. (1996). The relationship between cross-cultural adjustment and the personality variables of self-efficacy and self-monitoring. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20(2), 167–188.
Harter, S. (1990). Causes, correlates, and the functional role of global selfworth: A life-span perspective. In R. J. Sternberg & J. Kolligan, Jr. (Eds.), Competence considered (pp. 67–97). New Haven: Yale University Press.
Ickes, W., & Barnes, R. (1977). The role of sex and self-monitoring on unstructured dyadic interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 315–330.
Institute of International Education. (2003) American students study abroad in growing Numbers (November 17). www.Opendoors.iienetwork.org.
Ivancevich, J. M. (1998). Human resource management. Boston: Irwin/McGraw Hill.
Jenkins, M. J. (1993). Self-monitoring and turnover: The impact of personality on intent to leave. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14(1), 83–91.
Johnson, E. C., Krist Of-Brown, A. L., Van Vianen, A. E. M., De Pater, I., & Rigsby, M. M. (2002). Expatriate social ties: The impact of relationships with comparable others and host country nationals. Academy of Management Proceedings, pH1, 6 p.
Judge, T. A., Erez, A., Bono, J. E., & Thoresen, C. J. (2003). The core selfevaluations scale: Development of a measure. Personnel Psychology, 56(2), 303–331.
Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., Durham, C. C. (1997). The dispositional causes of job satisfaction: A core evaluations approach. Research in Organizational Behavior, 19, 151–188.
Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., Durham, C. C., & Kluger, A. N. (1998). Dispositional effects on job and life satisfaction: The role of core evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(1), 17–34.
Lennox, R. D., & Wolfe, R. N. (1984). Revision of the self-monitoring scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(6), 1349–1364.
Mathieu, J.E., & Hamel, K. (1989). A causal model of the antecedents of organizational commitment among professionals and nonprofessionals. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 34, 299–317.
Mehra, A., Kilduff, M., & Brass, D. J. (2001). The social networks of high and low self-monitors: Implications for workplace performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46, 121–146.
O’Cass, A. (2000). A psychometric evaluation of a revised version of the Lennox and Wolfe revised self-monitoring scale. Psychology & Marketing, 17(5), 397–419.
Packer, E. (1985). Understanding the subconscious. The Objectivist Forum, 6(1), 1–10 and 6(2), 8–15.
Peterson, R. A. (1994). A meta-analysis of Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. Journal of Consumer Research, 21, 381–391.
Porth, S. J. (1997). Management education goes international: A model for designing and teaching a study tour course. Journal of Management Education, 21(2), 190–199.
Roth, P. L., & BeVier, C. A. (1998). Response rates in HRM/OB survey research: Norms and correlates, 1990–1994. Journal of Management, 24(1).
Schuster, C. P. (1993). Planning and implementing overseas travel classes for executive MBA students. Marketing Education Review, 3, 54–60.
Sherer, M., Maddux, J. E., Mercandante, B., Prentice-Dunn, S., Jacobs, B., & Rogers, R. W. (1982). The self-efficacy scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports, 51, 663–671.
Shuptrine, F. K., Bearden, W. O., & Teel, J. E. (1990). An analysis of the dimensionality and reliability of the Lennox and Wolfe revised self-monitoring scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54(3&4), 515–522.
Snyder, M. (1974). Self-monitoring of expressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30(4), 526–537.
Snyder, M., & Monson, T. C. (1975). Persons, situations, and the control of social behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(4), 637–644.
Snyder, M. (1987). Public appearances private realities: The psychology of selfmonitoring. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
Tharenou, P. (1979). Employee self-esteem: A review of the literature. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 15, 316–346.