Two Personality Variables and the Cross-cultural Adjustment of Study Abroad Students
This article presents a study which focuses on two personality characteristics--emotional intelligence and entrepreneurial attitude orientation, which are expected to impact the cross-cultural adjustment of students while studying abroad. Based on self-assessments by university students who have studied abroad for a semester, this research examines the impact of both personality characteristics on their adjustment to their host culture.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Bhaskar-Shrinivas, Purnima, Harrison, David A., Shaffer, Margaret A., Luk, Dora M. (2005). Input-Based and Time-Based Models of International Adjustment: Meta-Analytic Evidence and Theoretical Extensions. Academy of Management Journal, 48(2), 257–281.
Black, J. Stewart (1990). Locus of Control, Social Support, Stress, and Adjustment in International Transfers. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 7(1), 1–29.
Black, J.S. (1988). Work role transitions: A study of American expatriate managers in Japan. Journal of International Business Studies, 9, 277–294.
Black, J.S., & Gregersen, H.B. (1991). The other half of the picture: Antecedents of spouse cross-cultural adjustment. Journal of International Business Studies, 22, 461–477.
Black, J.S., Mendenhall, M., & Oddou, G. (1991). Toward a comprehensive model of international adjustment: An integration of multiple theoretical perspectives. Academy of Management Review, 16, 291–317.
Breckler, Steven J. (1984). Empirical Validation of Affect, Behavior, and Cognition as Distinct Components of Attitude. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47(6), 1191–1205.
Costa, P.T, & McCrae, R.R. (1992). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 653–665.
Dwyer, Mary M., & Peters, Courtney K. (2004). The Benefits of Study Abroad: New Study Confirms Significant Gains. Transitions Abroad, 37(5), 56–58.
Gabel, Racheli Shmueli, Dolan, Shimon L., & Cerdin, Jean Luc (2005). Emotional intelligence as predictor of cultural adjustment for success in global assignments. Career Development International, 10(5), 375–395.
Harrison, J. Kline (2006). The Relationship between International Study Tour Effects and the Personality Variables of Self-Monitoring and Core Self- Evaluations. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad.
Harrison, J. Kline, Chadwick, Margaret, & Scales, Maria (1996). The Relationship between Cross-Cultural Adjustment and the Personality Variables of Self-Efficacy and Self-Monitoring. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20(2), 167–188.
Huang, Tsai-Jung, Chi, Shu-Cheng, & Lawler, John J. (2005). The relationship between expatriates’ personality traits and their adjustment to international assignments. International Journal of Human Resource Management,
Huefner, Jonathan C., & Hunt, H. Keith (1994). Broadening the Concept of Entrepreneurship: Comparing Business and Consumer Entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Spring, 61–75.
Illieva, Janet, Baron, Steve, & Healey, Nigel M. (2002). Online surveys in marketing research: Pros and Cons. International Journal of Market Research, July, 361–377.
Jassawalla, Avan, Truglia, Ciara, & Garvey, Jennifer (2004). Cross-cultural conflict and expatriate manager adjustment: An exploratory study. Management Decision, 42(7), 837–849.
Kothandapani, Virupaksha (1971). Validation of Feeling, Belief, and Intention to act as Three Components of Attitude and their Contribution to Prediction of Contraceptive Behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 19(3), 321–333.
Mayer, JD, & Salovey P. (1993). The Intelligence of Emotional Intelligence. Intelligence, 17(4), 433–442.
McCline, Richard L., Bhat, Subodh, & Baj, Pam (2000). Opportunity Recognition: An Exploratory Investigation of a Component of the Entrepreneurial Process i n the Context of the Health Care Industry. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 25(2), 81–94.
McShane, Steven L., & Von Glinow, Mary Ann (2005). Organizational Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Nicholson, N. (1984). A theory of work role transitions. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 172–191.
Ornstein, Suzyn, & Nelson, Teresa (2006). Incorporating emotional intelligence competency building i nto the preparation and delivery of international travel courses. Innovations in Education and Teaching International,
Rahim, M. Afzalur, & Psenicka, Clement (2002). A Model of Emotional Intelligence and Conflict Management Strategies: A Study in Seven Countries. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 10(4), 302–326.
Robie, Chet, & Ryan, Ann Marie (1996). Structural Equivalence of a Measure of Cross-Cultural Adjustment. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 56(3), 514–521.
Robinson, Peter B., Stimpson, David V., Huefner, Jonathan C., & Hunt, H. Keith (1991). An Attitude Approach to the Prediction of Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Summer, 13–31.
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional Intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185–211.
Schroth, Marvin L., & McCormick, William A. (2000). Sensation Seeking and Need for Achievement among Study-Abroad Students. The Journal of Social Psychology, 140(4), 533–535.
Shaffer, Margaret A., Harrison, David A., & Gilley, K. Matthew (1999). Dimensions, Determinants, and Differences i n the Expatriate Adjustment Process. Journal of International Business Studies, 30(3), 557–581.
Shaffer, Margaret A., Harrison, David A., Gregersen, Hal, Black, J. Stewart, & Ferzandi, Lori A. (2006). You Can Take It With You: Individual Differences and Expatriate Effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 109–125.
U.S. Study Abroad Increases by 9.6%, Continues Record Growth. (2005, November 14). IIE Network.
van Wyk, R., and A.B. Boshoff (2004). Entrepreneurial Attitudes: A distinction between two professional groups. South African Journal of Business Management, 35(2), 33–38.
Vande Berg, Michael (2003). The Case for Assessing Educational Outcomes in Study Abroad. Advances in International Marketing, 13, 23–36.
Wong, Chi-Sum, & Law, Kenneth S. (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 243–274.