The Impact of Cultural Intelligence and Psychological Hardiness on Homesickness among Study Abroad Students

  • J. Kline Harrison
  • Holly H. Brower
Keywords: Study Abroad, Education abroad, Psychological adjustment, Study success, Assessment


Because of the growth and impact of study abroad experiences, it is important to identify and evaluate factors contributing to students’ success. Unfortunately, a survey of leading U.S. study abroad institutions found that 96% of assessment instruments only gauged students’ satisfaction as the single measurement of success (Berg, 2003). In contrast, the literature on international job assignments identifies psychological adjustment as a vital construct underlying the success of expatriate employee experiences (Selmer & Leung, 2003). Furthermore, personality characteristics or stable personal traits are considered among the most important factors affecting the psychological adjustment of expatriate employees, and thus their success (Huang, Chi & Lawler, 2005; Jassawalla, Truglia, & Garvey, 2004). Two of these traits that are especially appropriate in the study of successful cross-cultural adjustment are cultural intelligence and psychological hardiness. This article presents a study about these constructs and presents a rationale for predictions about their impact on successful psychological adjustment for study abroad participants.


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Author Biographies

J. Kline Harrison

J. Kline Harrison is the Associate Provost for International Affairs at Wake Forest University, where he also serves as the Kemper Professor of Business in the School of Business. His areas of teaching include Organizational Behavior, Human Resources Management, and International Business. Dr. Harrison's recent research focuses primarily on personality variables associated with cross-cultural adjustment. 

Holly H. Brower

Holly H. Brower is an Associate Professor at Wake Forest University and the Director of Internship Development for the Business and Enterprise Management Program in the Schools of Business. Prior to her academic career, she spent 10 years managing organizations in the nonprofit sector in Illinois, Colorado and Iowa. Dr. Brower’s research interests lie in the areas of corporate governance, leadership and ethical decision making. 


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How to Cite
Harrison, J. K., & Brower, H. H. (2011). The Impact of Cultural Intelligence and Psychological Hardiness on Homesickness among Study Abroad Students. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21(1), 41-62.
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