The Impact of Cultural Intelligence and Psychological Hardiness on Homesickness among Study Abroad Students
Because of the growth and impact of study abroad experiences, it is important to identify and evaluate factors contributing to students’ success. Unfortunately, a survey of leading U.S. study abroad institutions found that 96% of assessment instruments only gauged students’ satisfaction as the single measurement of success (Berg, 2003). In contrast, the literature on international job assignments identifies psychological adjustment as a vital construct underlying the success of expatriate employee experiences (Selmer & Leung, 2003). Furthermore, personality characteristics or stable personal traits are considered among the most important factors affecting the psychological adjustment of expatriate employees, and thus their success (Huang, Chi & Lawler, 2005; Jassawalla, Truglia, & Garvey, 2004). Two of these traits that are especially appropriate in the study of successful cross-cultural adjustment are cultural intelligence and psychological hardiness. This article presents a study about these constructs and presents a rationale for predictions about their impact on successful psychological adjustment for study abroad participants.
Ang, S., Dyne, L. V., Koh, C., Ng, K. Y., Templer, K. J., Tay, C., & Chandrasekar, N. A. (2007). Cultural intelligence: Its measurement
and effects on cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance. Management and Organization
Review, 3(3), 335-371.
Archer, J., Ireland, J., Amos, S., Broad, H., & Currid, L. (1998). Derivation of a homesickness scale. British Journal of Psychology, 89, 205-221.
Bartone, P. (1999). Hardiness Protects Against War-Related Stress in Army Reserve Forces. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 51(2), 72-82.
Beck, R., Taylor, C. & Robbins, M. (2003). Missing home: Sociotropy and autonomy and their relationship to psychological distress and homesickness in college freshmen. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 16, 155-166.
Bertrand, M. & Mullainathan, S. (2001). Do People Mean What They Say? Implications for Subjective Survey Data. The American Economic Review, 91 (2), 67-72.
Black, J.S. (1988). Work role transitions: A study of American expatriate managers in Japan. Journal of International Business Studies, 9, 277-294.
Black, J.S., & Gregersen, H.B. (1991). The other half of the picture: Antecedents of spouse cross-cultural adjustment. Journal of International Business Studies, 22, 461-477.
Black, J.S., Mendenhall, M., & Oddou, G. (1991). Toward a comprehensive model of international adjustment: An integration of multiple theoretical perspectives. Academy of Management Review, 16, 291-317.
Black, J.S. & Stephens, G. (1989). The Influence of the Spouse on American Expatriate Adjustment and Intent to Stay in Pacific Rim Overseas Assignments. Journal of Management, 15(4), 529-544.
Brewin, C. R., Furnham, A. & Howes, M. (1989). Demographic and psychological determinants of homesickness and confiding among
students. British Journal of Psychology, 80, 467-477.
Chapdelaine, R. F., & Alexitch, L. R. (2004). Social skills difficulty: Model of culture shock for international graduate students. Journal of College Student Development, 45, 167-184.
Cole, M., Field, H. & Harris, S. (2004). Student Learning Motivation and Psychological Hardiness: Interactive Effects on Students’ Reactions to a Management Class. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 3(1), 64-85.
Constantine, M. G., Anderson, G. M., Berkel, L. A., Caldwell, L.D., & Utsey, S. O. (2005). Examining the cultural adjustment experiences of African international college students: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 57-66.
Crowne, K.A. (2008). What leads to cultural intelligence? Business Horizons, 51, 391-399.
Earley, P. C. (2002). Redefining interactions across cultures and organizations: Moving forward with cultural intelligence. In B. M.
Staw & R. I Sutton (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (pp. 271-299). New York: JAI Press.
Earley, P. C. & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Earley, P. C. & Mosakowski (2004). Cultural intelligence. Harvard Business Review, 139-146.
Earley, P. C. & Peterson, R. S. (2004). The elusive cultural chameleon: Cultural intelligence as a new approach to intercultural training for the global manager. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 3(1), 100- 115.
Eurelings-Bontekoe, E. H., Brouwers, E. P. M., & Verschuur, M. J. (2000). Homesickness among foreign employees of a multinational high-tech company in the Netherlands. Environment and Behavior, 32, 443-456.
Fenner, C, R., Jr. & Selmer, J. (2008). Public sector expatriate managers: psychological adjustment , personal characteristics and job factors. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 19(7), 1237-1252.
Fisher, S. & Hood, B. (1988). Vulnerability factors in the transition to university: Self-reported mobility history and sex differences as factors in psychological disturbance. British Journal of Psychology, 79, 309-320.
Fisher, S. & Hood, B. (1987). The stress of the transition to university: A longitudinal study of psychological disturbance and vulnerability to homesickness. British Journal of Psychology, 78, 425-442.
Fisher, S., Murray, K., & Frazer, N. (1985). Homesickness, health and efficiency in first year students. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 5, 181-195.
Harrison, J. Kline, Chadwick, Margaret, & Scales, Maria (1996). The Relationship between Cross-Cultural Adjustment and the Personality Variables of Self-Efficacy and Self-Monitoring. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20(2), 167-188.
Harrison, K. & Voelker, E. (2008). Two Personality Variables and the Crosscultural Adjustment of Study Abroad Students. Frontiers, 17.
Helms, J.E., Henze, K.T., Sass, T.L., & Mifsud, V.A. (2006). Treating Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Coefficients as Data in Counseling
Research. The Counseling Psychologist, 34(5), 630-660.
Kobasa, S., Maddi, S. & Kahn, S. (1982). Hardiness and Health: A Prospective Study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42(1), 168-177.
Kuo, W.H., & Tsai, Y. (1986). Social Networking, Hardiness and Immigrant’s Mental Health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior,
Maddi, S. (1999). The Personality Construct of Hardiness: I. Effects on Experiencing, Coping, and Strain. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 51(2), 83-94.
Manfreda, K.L., Bosnjak, M., Berzelak, J., Haas, I., & Vehovar, V. (2006). Web surveys versus other survey modes. International Journal of Market Research, 50(1), 79-104.
Nicholson, N. (1984). A theory of work role transitions. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 172-191.
Open Doors 2008: U.S. Students Studying Abroad (2008, November 17). Institute for International Education Network.
Peltokorpi, V. (2008). Cross-cultural adjustment of expatriates in Japan. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19 (9), 1588-1606.
Poyrazli, S. & Lopez, M. D. (2007). An Exploratory Study of Perceived Discrimination and Homesickness: A Comparison of International Students and American Students. The Journal of Psychology, 141(3), 263-280.
Poyrazli, S. & Lopez, M. D. (2007). Proceedings of the Forum on Study Abroad and Economic Competitiveness (Washington D.C.: National Press Club, 2007).
Robie, Chet, & Ryan, Ann Marie (1996). Structural Equivalence of a Measure of Cross-Cultural Adjustment. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 56(3), 514-521.
Sansone, D., Wiebe, D., & Morgan, C. (1999). Self-regulating Interest: The Moderating Role of Hardiness and Conscientiousness. Journal of Personality, 67(4), 701-733.
Selmer, J., & Leung, A.S.M. (2003). International adjustment of female vs male business expatriates. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(7), 1117-1131.
Stokols, D., Schumaker, S. A. & Martinez, J. (1983). Residential mobility and personal well being. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3, 5-19.
Stroebe, M., vanVliet, T., Hewstone, M., & Willis, H. (2002). Homesickness among students in two cultures: Antecedents and consequences. British Journal of Psychology, 93, 147-168.
Tan, J. (2004). Cultural intelligence and the global economy. Issues and Observations, 24(5), 19 – 21.
Van Tilburg, M. A. L., Vingerhoets, J. J. M., Van Heck, G. L. (1997). Coping with homesickness: The construction of the adult homesickness coping questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 22, 901-907.
Vande Berg, Michael (2003). The Case for Assessing Educational Outcomes in Study Abroad. Advances in International Marketing, 13, 23-36.
Ward, C. & Kennedy, A. (1993). Psychological and socio-cultural adjustment during cross-cultural transitions: A comparison of secondary students overseas and at home. International Journal of Psychology, 28, 129 – 147.
Ward, C., Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Routledge.