The Effects of Studying Abroad and Studying Sustainability on Students’ Global Perspectives
Study abroad has shifted from a marginal opportunity to a core strategy of U.S. colleges and universities, considered integral in the mission to globalize the academic environment. Our study explores the effect of studying abroad and studying about sustainability on students’ global perspectives. A total of 291 university students participated in a pretest/posttest design. Results suggest that study abroad can promote cognitive, intrapersonal, and social developmental global perspectives among college students beyond that achieved via on-campus courses. Sustainability course content did not affect global perspectives, however. Findings warrant the conclusion that even short-term study abroad experiences can meet the globalisation goals of institutions of higher education.
Braskamp, L.A. & Braskamp, D.C. (2013). The global perspectives of college students and their college experiences. Chicago, IL: Global Perspectives Institute, Inc. Retrieved from www.gpi.central.edu
Braskamp, L., Braskamp, D, & Merrill, K. (2009). Assessing progress in global learning and development of students with education abroad experiences. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 15, 101-118.
Braskamp, L.A., Braskamp, D.C., & Engberg, M. (2013). The Global Perspective Inventory (GPI): Its purpose, construction, potential users, and psychometric properties. Chicago, IL: Global Perspectives
Institute, Inc. Retrieved from http://gpi.central.edu/supportDocs/manual.pdf
Braskamp, L.A. & Engberg, M. (2011). How colleges can influence the development of a global perspective. Liberal Education, Summer/Fall, 34-39.
Campbell, D.T. & Stanley, J.C. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
Carlson, J.S., & Widaman, K.F. (1988). The effects of study abroad during college
on attitudes toward other cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12, 1-17.
Chickering, A. & Braskamp, L.A. (2009). Developing a global perspective for personal and social responsibility. Peer Review, Fall, 27-30.
Chieffo, L. & Griffiths, L. (2004). Large-scale assessment of student attitudes after a short-term study abroad program. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 65-77.
Childress, L. K. (2009). Internationalization plans for higher education institutions. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(3), 289 -309.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (second ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Commission on the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Fellowship Program. (2005). Global competence and national needs. Washington, DC: Lincoln Commission. Retrieved from http://www.aplu.org/document.doc?id=190
Duke, C. R. 2000. Study abroad learning activities: a synthesis and comparison. Journal of Marketing Education, 22, 155–165.
Durbin, R.J. (2006). The Lincoln Commission and the Future of Study Abroad. International Educator, 15(1), 4-6.
Dwyer, M. M. (2004a). Charting the impact of studying abroad. International Educator, 13(1), 14–20.
Dwyer, M. (2004b). More is better: The impact of study abroad duration. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad 10, 151-163.
Elkington, J. (1998). Cannibals with forks: The triple bottom line of 21st century business. Stoney Creek, CT: New Society Publishers.
Engberg, M.E., & Fox, K. (2011). Exploring the relationship between undergraduate service-learning experiences and global perspective-taking. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 48(1), 85–105.
Franklin, K. (2010). Long-term career impact and professional applicability of the study abroad experience. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 16, 169-190.
Global Perspective Institute Inc. (2012). Global Perspective Inventory. Retrieved from http://gpi.central.edu
Gonyea, R.M. (2008, November). The impact of study abroad on senior year engagement. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Jacksonville, FL. Retrieved from http://cpr.iub.edu/uploads/Gonyea_StudyAbroad.pdf
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Global competitiveness: Implications for the nation’s higher education system. Retrieved from www.gao.gov/new.items/d07135sp.pdf
Hanson, L. (2010). Global citizenship, global health, and the internationalization of curriculum: A study of transformative potential. Journal of Studies in International Education, 14(1), 70-88.
Harrison, J.K. (2006). The relationship between international study tour effects and the personality variables of self-monitoring and core self-evaluations. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 12, 1-22.
Hovland, K. (2009). Global learning: What is it? Who is responsible for it? Peer Review, Fall, 4-7.
IBM Corp. (2011). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
Institute of International Education (2012). Open Doors Report. Retrieved from http://www.iie.org/en/Research-and-Publications/Open-Doors
Kaufmann, N., J. Martin, H. Weaver, & J. Weaver. (1992). Students abroad: Strangers at home. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Kehl, K. & Morris, J. (1997). Differences in global-mindedness between short-term and semester-long study abroad participants at selected private universities. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 3, 67-79.
Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Kroger, R. O., & Wood, L. A. (1993). Reification, "faking," and the Big Five. American Psychologist, 48(12), 1297-1298.
Lewin, R. (2009). Transforming the study abroad experience into a collective priority. Peer Review, Fall, 8-11.
Litvin, S. (2000). Revisiting ‘Tourism and Understanding.’ Annals of Tourism Research, 27, 526-529.
Litvin, S. (2003). Tourism and understanding: The MBA Study Mission. Annals of Tourism Research, 30, 77–93.
Lutterman-Aguilar, A. & Gingerich, O. (2002). Experiential pedagogy for study abroad: Educating for global citizenship. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 8, 41-82.
McKeown, J.S. (2009). The first time effect: The impact of study abroad on college student intellectual development. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
McLaughlin, J.S. & Johnson, D.K. (2006). Assessing the field course experiential learning model: Transforming collegiate short-term study abroad experiences into rich learning environments. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 12, 65-85.
McLeod, M. & Wainwright, P. (2009). Researching the study abroad experience. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(1), 66-71.
Merrill, K.C., Braskamp, D.C., & Braskamp, LA. (2012). Assessing individuals’ global perspective. Journal of College Student Development, 53(2), 356-360.
Musil, C.M. (2006). Assessing global learning: Matching good intentions with good practice. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities. Retrieved from http://www.aacu.org/SharedFutures/documents/Global_Learning.pdf
National Survey of Student Engagement. (2007). Experiences that matter: Enhancing student learning and success. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University. Retrieved from http://nsse.iub.edu/NSSE_2007_Annual_Report/docs/withhold/NSSE_2007_Annual_Report.pdf
Norris, E. M. & Gillespie, J. (2009). How study abroad shapes global careers: Evidence from the United States. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(3), 382 -397.
Nyaupane, G.P., Teye, V., & Paris, S. (2008). Innocents abroad: Attitude change toward hosts. Annals of Tourism Research, 35, 650-667.
Pagano, M. & Roselle, L. (2009). Beyond reflection through an academic lens: Refraction and international experiential education. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 15, 217-229.
Paige, R.M., Fry, G.W., Stallman, E., Jon, J-E., & Josić, J. (2010). Beyond Immediate Impact: Study Abroad for Global Engagement (SAGE). Report Submitted to the Title VI: International Research and Studies Program U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://csu.net/engage/documents/study-abroad-for-global-engagement.pdf
Samonte, K., & Pastor, D. (2011). An exploratory factor analysis of the Global Perspectives Inventory. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Convention of the Association for Psychological Sciences, Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://www.psyc.jmu.edu/assessment/research/pdfs/The%20Global%20Perspective%20Inventory_FINAL.pdf
Schroth, M.L. & McCormack, W.A. (2000). Sensation seeking and need for achievement among study abroad students. The Journal of Social Psychology, 140, 533-535.
Sobania, N. & Braskamp, L. A. (2009). Study abroad or study away. Peer Review, 23-26.
Stearns, P.N. (2009). Educating global citizens in colleges and universities: Challenges and opportunities. Routledge: New York.
Steinberg, M. (2002). Involve me and I will understand: Academic quality in experiential programs. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 8, 207-229.
Streitwiser, B. & Light, G. (2010). University students and conceptions of global citizenship: A case study. Northwestern University, Evanston, IL: The Center for Global Engagement. Retrieved from www.cics.northwestern.edu/documents/workingpapers/CGE_10-001_Streitwieser_Light.pdf
Sutton, R.C., Miller, A.N, & Rubin, D.L. (2007). Research design in assessing learning outcomes of education abroad programs. In M. Bolen (Ed.), A Guide to Outcomes Assessment in Educa¬tion Abroad (pp. 23–59). Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Sutton, R.C. & D.L. Rubin. (2004). The GLOSSARI project: Initial findings from a system-wide research initiative on study abroad learning outcomes. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 65-82.
Tarrant, M.A. (2010). A conceptual framework for exploring the role of studies abroad in nurturing global citizenship. Journal of Studies in International Education, 14(5), 433-451.
Tarrant, M.A. & Lyons, K. (2012). The effect of short-term educational travel programs on environmental citizenship. Environmental Education Research, 18, 403-416.
Tarrant, M.A., Lyons, K., Stoner, L., Kyle, G.T., Wearing, S. & Poudyal, N. (2013a). Global citizenry, educational travel, and sustainable tourism: Evidence from Australia and New Zealand. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 22(3), 403-420.
Tarrant, M.A., Rubin, D., & Stoner, L. (2013b). The added value of study abroad: Fostering a global citizenry. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(2), 141-161.
Taylor, A. (2011). Using the GLM procedure in SPSS. Sydney: Macquarie University. Retrieved www.google.com.au/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=post+hoc+tests+for+significent+interactions+in+GLM+spss&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&gws_rd=cr&ei=40lWUo6aEI3akgXcpoCIBQ
The National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement. (2012). A crucible moment: College learning and democracy’s future. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
Van ‘t Klooster, van Wijk, E.J., Go, F., & van Rekom, J. (2008). Educational travel: The overseas internship. Annals of Tourism Research, 35, 690-711.
Vande Berg, M.J., Balkcum, A., Scheid, M., & Whalen, B.J. (2004). The Georgetown University consortium project: A report at the halfway mark. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 101-116.
World Commission on Environment and Development (1987). Our common future. London: Oxford University Press.
Zorn, C. R. 1996. The long-term impact on nursing students of participating in international education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 12, 106–110.