From Pre-Freshman Abroad to Freshman On-Campus: Examining Intercultural Competence Development Through an Extended Journey

Authors

  • Michael Bittinger Purdue University
  • Lan Jin Purdue University
  • Xueting (Katherine) Dou Purdue University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v34i1.636

Keywords:

intercultural competence, study abroad, pre-freshman, first-year college students, internationalization

Abstract

As students transition from high school to college, their abilities to adapt and adjust are put to the test. This study examines the outcomes of a multi-stage study abroad program targeting first-year college students. The authors investigated student intercultural competence levels prior to matriculation, their development while abroad, and their continued expansion by means of a post-travel, on-campus component. Mixed-methods data collection and analyses indicated that students gained significant intercultural competence development through participating in a short-term overseas experience, which stretched into their transition to college life. This research contributes to the study abroad and intercultural learning literature by investigating the effect of an innovative program model and the understudied population of pre-freshman students. The findings provide practical implications for designing and assessing intercultural programing overseas and on campus.

 

Abstract in Chinese

在由高中升入大学的这一过程中,学生的适应调节能力受到了考验。本文旨在检验以大一新生为目标群体的多阶段海外学习项目的成果。作者研究了学生在不同阶段的跨文化能力水平的发展过程,包括入学之前的水平,在海外学习时的能力进展,以及回国之后、通过继续参与该项目的校园阶段学习而取得的能力扩展。采用混合方法(定量和定性)的数据采集和分析表明,学生通过参与短期海外学习,以及过渡到大学生活,他们的跨文化能力得到了显著的提高。本研究通过调查针对大一预备生的创新项目模式的成效,为海外学习和跨文化学习的文献做出了贡献。该研究发现为设计评估海外及本土的跨文化项目提供了实践性参考。

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Michael Bittinger, Purdue University

Michael Bittinger, Assistant Director, Purdue University Study Abroad. Michael is an intercultural learning practitioner and study abroad program facilitator, leading multiple groups overseas per year. He has extensive experience developing and managing programs for the development of intercultural competence, domestically and abroad. He is a qualified administrator for the Intercultural Development Inventory, and the Global Competence Certificate.

Lan Jin, Purdue University

Lan Jin, PhD, Intercultural Research Specialist, Center for Intercultural Learning, Mentorship, Assessment and Research (CILMAR). Dr. Jin’s major research interests lie in the area of intercultural competence development in the classroom, study abroad programs, virtual exchange programs, and co-curricular programs, as well as diversity, equity, and inclusion in higher education. Dr. Jin is particularly interested in developing intercultural interventions for teaching and learning using innovative approaches to improve intercultural competence and other student learning outcomes.

Xueting (Katherine) Dou, Purdue University

Xueting (Katherine) Dou, PhD, White Lodging- J.W. Marriott, Jr. School of Hospitality and Tourism Management. Xueting (Katherine) Dou recently graduated with a PhD degree in Hospitality & Tourism Management from Purdue University. Her current research focuses on tourist behavior, service innovation, and student mobility. She is especially interested in investigating the impact of travel on tourists’ quality of life. Xueting also worked as a graduate assistant and student advisor in the Study Abroad Office at Purdue University.

References

Altbach, P. G., & Knight, J. (2016). The internationalization of higher education: Motivations and realities. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3–4), 290–305. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315307303542

Altbach, P. & McGill Peterson, P. (1998). Internationalize American higher education? Not exactly. Change, 30(4), 36–39.

Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U). (2009), Intercultural knowledge and competence VALUE rubric. Retrieved from https://www.aacu.org/value/rubrics/intercultural-knowledge

Anderson, P. H., & Lawton, L. (2011). Intercultural development: Study abroad vs. On-campus study. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21(1), 86–108. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v21i1.305

Beelen, J., & Jones, E. (2015). Redefining internationalization at home. In The European higher education area (pp. 59-72). Springer, Cham.

Bennett, M. J. (1986). A developmental Approach to training for intercultural sensitivity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10(2), 179-.

Berg, M. V., Connor-Linton, J., & Paige, R. M. (2009). The Georgetown Consortium Project: Interventions for student learning abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 18(1), 1–75. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v18i1.251

Berg, M. V., Paige, R. M., & Lou, K. H. (2012). Student learning abroad: What our students are learning, what they’re not, and what we can do about it. Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Bolen, M. C. (Ed.). (2007). A guide to outcomes assessment in education abroad. Forum on Education Abroad.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Caffrey, R. A., Neander, W., Markle, D., & Stewart, B. (2005). Improving the cultural competence of nursing students: Results of integrating cultural content in the curriculum and an international immersion experience. Journal of Nursing Education, 44(5), 234–240. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20050501-06

Carroll, C. P. (2019). Investigation of a college freshmen study abroad program: Academic and intercultural communication outcomes [Doctoral Dissertation]. https://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/islandora/object/fsu%3A709728/

Chi, M. T. (1997). Quantifying qualitative analyses of verbal data: A practical guide. The journal of the learning sciences, 6(3), 271-315.

Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Cornwell, G. H., & Stoddard, E. W. (1999). Globalizing knowledge: Connecting international & intercultural studies. The Academy in Transition (p. 54). Association of American Colleges and Universities. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED440610

de Wit, H. (2019). Internationalization in higher education, a critical review. SFU Educational Review, 12(3), 9–17. https://doi.org/10.21810/sfuer.v12i3.1036

de Wit, H., & Altbach, P. G. (2021). Internationalization in higher education: global trends and recommendations for its future. Policy Reviews in Higher Education, 5(1), 28-46.

Deardorff, D. K. (2006). Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 241–266. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315306287002

Deardorff, D. K. (2009). The sage handbook of intercultural competence. Sage Publications.

Doerr, N. M. (2018). Transforming study abroad: A handbook. Berghahn Books.

Dolby, N. (2007). Reflections on nation: American undergraduates and education abroad. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(2), 141–156. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315306291944

Ferranto, M. L. G. (2015). A qualitative study of baccalaureate nursing students following an eight-day international cultural experience in Tanzania: Cultural humility as an outcome. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 91–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.631

Glaser, B. G. (1965). The constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Social Problems, 12(4), 436–445. https://doi.org/10.2307/798843

Glaser, B. G. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Aldine Publishing.

Gray, J., Connolly, J., & Brown, M. (2019). Measuring intercultural knowledge and competence in college essays: Does a performance-based rubric have construct validity? Studies in Educational Evaluation, 62, 142-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2019.05.007

Green, M. F. (2012). Measuring and assessing internationalization. NAFSA: Association of International Educators, 1, 1-26.

Griffin, J. (2020). Faculty and staff perspectives on internationalization and intercultural competence at a state comprehensive university (SCU). In T. Puckett & N. Lind (Eds.), Cultural Competence in Higher Education, 28, 99–112. Emerald Publishing Limited. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2055-364120200000028011

Havis, L. R. (2019). Promoting intercultural competence among criminal justice students using interview-based signature assignments. Transformative Dialogues: Teaching & Learning Journal, 12(1), 1-17.

Hammer, M. R. (2011). Additional cross-cultural validity testing of the Intercultural Development Inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(4), 474–487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.02.014

Hammer, M. R. (2015). The Developmental paradigm for intercultural competence research. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 48, 12–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.03.004

Hammer, M. R., Bennett, M. J., & Wiseman, R. (2003). Measuring intercultural sensitivity: The intercultural development inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(4), 421–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(03)00032-4

Heinzmann, S., Künzle, R., Schallhart, N., & Müller, M. (2015). The effect of study abroad on intercultural competence: Results from a longitudinal quasi-experimental study. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 26(1), 187–208. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v26i1.366

Hightower, C. T. (2016). Intercultural Competency and First-Year Students [Doctoral Dissertation]. https://repository.tcu.edu/bitstream/handle/116099117/10930/Hightower_tcu_0229D_10722.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Hudzik, J. K. (2011). Comprehensive internationalization: From concept to action. International Educator, 20(2), 10.

IIE, Open Doors. (2019). U.S. Study Abroad for Academic Credit Trends. Retrieved November 18, 2020, from https://opendoorsdata.org/data/us-study-abroad/u-s-study-abroad-for-academic-credit-trends/

Kahn, H. E., & Agnew, M. (2017). Global learning through difference: Considerations for teaching, learning, and the internationalization of higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 21(1), 52–64. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315315622022

Koch, K. (2008). Internalization in the U.S.: Slipping backward? International Higher Education, 53, 10–11. https://doi.org/10.6017/ihe.2008.53.8050

Koester, J., Wiseman, R. L., & Sanders, J. A. (1993). Multiple perspectives of intercultural communication competence. International and Intercultural Communication Annual, 17, 3–15.

Kolb, S. (2012). Grounded theory and the constant comparative method: Valid research strategies for educators. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies, 3(1), 83–86. https://doi.org/10.10520/EJC135409

Lee, A., Williams, R. D., Shaw, M. A., & Jie, Y. (2014). First-year students’ perspectives on intercultural learning. Teaching in Higher Education, 19(5), 543–554. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2014.880687

Lyons, L. M., Buddie, A. M., & Purcell, J. W. (2018). Integrated student leadership development: A qualitative case study on building the intercultural competence of first-year honors students. Journal of Leadership Education, 17(3), 98–120.

Meyer-Lee, E., & Evans, J. (2007). Areas of study in outcomes assessment. In M. C. Bolen (Ed.), A guide to outcomes assessment in study abroad (pp. 61-70). The Forum on Education Abroad.

Olson, J. E., & Lalley, K. (2012). Evaluating a short-term, first-year study abroad program for business and engineering undergraduates: Understanding the student learning experience. Journal of Education for Business, 87(6), 325–332. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832323.2011.627889

Paige, R.M., Jacobs-Cassuto, M., Yershova, Y. A., & DeJaeghere, J. (2003). Assessing intercultural sensitivity: An empirical analysis of the Hammer and Bennett Intercultural Development Inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(4), 467–486. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(03)00034-8

Paras, A., Carignan, M., Brenner, A., Hardy, J., Malmgren, J., & Rathburn, M. (2019). Understanding how program factors influence intercultural learning in study abroad: The benefits of mixed-method analysis. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 31(1), 22-45. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v31i1.441

Rhodes, T. L., Valid assessment of learning in undergraduate education (project), liberal education and America’s promise (program), & Association of American Colleges and Universities. (2010). Assessing outcomes and improving achievement: Tips and tools for using rubrics.

Roy, P., Wandschneider, E., & Steglitz, I. (2014). Assessing education abroad outcomes: A Review of the BEVI, IDI, and GPI (p. 22) [White Paper]. Michigan State University. http://jp.thebevi.com/wp- content/uploads/2018/11/06Assessing_EA_Outcomes_WhitePaper.pdf

Sablan, J. (2014). The challenge of summer bridge programs. American Behavioral Scientist. 58(8), 1035-1050. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764213515234

Sahasrabudhe, S., Shaikh, N., & Kasat, K. (2020). Internationalisation of higher education—Necessity to adapt to new forms of engagement for ensuring sustainability? Journal of Statistics and Management Systems, 23(2), 431–444. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720510.2020.1736328

Sawilowsky, S. (2009). New effect size rules of thumb. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods. 8(2), 467–474. doi:10.22237/jmasm/1257035100

Smith, J. E., McAuliffe, G., & Rippard, K. S. (2014). Counseling students’ transformative learning through a study abroad curriculum. Counselor Education and Supervision, 53(4), 306–319. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6978.2014.00065.x

Soria, K. M., & Troisi, J. (2014). Internationalization at home alternatives to study abroad: Implications for students’ development of global, international, and intercultural competencies. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(3), 261–280. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315313496572

Spitzberg, B. H., & Changnon, G. (2009). Conceptualizing intercultural competence. In D. K. Deardorff (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence (pp. 2-52). Sage Publications, Inc.

Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. M. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Sage Publications.

Suzuki, A., Amrein-Beardsley, A., & Perry, N. J. (2012). A summer bridge program for underprepared first-year students: Confidence, community, and re-enrollment. Journal of The First-Year Experience & Students in Transition, 24(2), 85–106.

Tomasko, D. L., Ridgway, J. S., Waller, R. J., & Olesik, S. V. (2016). Research and teaching: association of summer bridge program outcomes with STEM retention of targeted demographic groups. Journal of College Science Teaching, 45(4).

Urban, E. L., & Palmer, L. B. (2014). International students as a resource for internationalization of higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(4), 305–324. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315313511642

Wachen, J., Pretlow, J., & Dixon, K. G. (2018). Building college readiness: Exploring the effectiveness of the UNC Academic Summer Bridge Program. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 20(1), 116–138. https://doi.org/10.1177/1521025116649739

Wiley, A. (2016). Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI): Independent Review (p. 12) [Review]. ACS Ventures, LLC. https://idiinventory.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/2016-IDI-Validation-ACS-Independent-Review-Phase-3.pdf

Wolff, F., & Borzikowsky, C. (2018). Intercultural competence by international experiences? An investigation of the impact of educational stays abroad on intercultural competence and its facets. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 49(3) 488-514.

Downloads

Published

2022-03-10

How to Cite

Bittinger, M., Jin, L., & Dou, X. (Katherine). (2022). From Pre-Freshman Abroad to Freshman On-Campus: Examining Intercultural Competence Development Through an Extended Journey. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 34(1), 61–96. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v34i1.636

Issue

Section

Research Articles