Study Abroad Reentry: Behavior, Affect, and Cultural Distance
Reentry has become a more focused aspect of study abroad in recent years as the field has moved away from a laissez-faire approach and toward an emphasis on intervention and support of study abroad students in their efforts to make sense of their experiences (Vande Berg, Paige & Lou, 2012). Although not a new concept (Brathurst & La Brack, 2012), reentry in its more recent incarnation can be seen as an opportunity for students to ratify and reconstrue their encounters with a foreign culture in a way that enhances a sense of self in an intercultural world (Selby, 2008). Despite its history and current popularity, many concepts and ideas about reentry rely on anecdotal, non-research based theorizing. The current study attempts to quantify two important aspects of reentry (behavioral readaptation and emotional response) in the context of measured factors that might impact the intensity of reentry challenges.
Adler, N. J., (2002). International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior (4th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western.
Aiken, L. S. & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of personality and social psychology, 51(6), 1173.
Bennett, J. M. (2008). On becoming a global soul: A path to engagement on study abroad. In V. Savicki, (Ed). Developing Intercultural Competence and Transformation: Theory, Research, and Application in International Education. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
Berry, J. W. (2005). Acculturation. In W. Friedlmeier, P. Chakkarath, & B. Schwarz (Eds.) Culture and Human Development (pp. 291-302). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59, 20–28.
Brathurst, L, & La Brack, B. (2012). Intervening prior to and after student experiences abroad. In M. Vande Berg, R. M. Paige, & K. H. Lou (Eds.). Student Learning Abroad: What our students are learning, what they're not, and what we can do about it., (pp. 261-283). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
Chamove, A., & Soeterik, S. (2006). Grief in returning sojourners. Journal of Social Science, 13, 215-220.
Gullahorn, J.T., & Gullahorn, J.E. (1963). An extension of the U-curve hypothesis. Journal of Social issues, 19(3), 33-47.
Hofstede, G. H. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Kogut, B., & Singh, H. (1988). The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode. Journal of international business studies, 411-432.
La Brack, Bruce (2003). What’s up with culture? Retrieved from http://www.pacific.edu/culture.
Lysgaard, S. (1955). Adjustment in a foreign society: Norwegian Fulbright grantees visit the United States. Acta Psychologica. 11,189-190.
Martin, J. N., & Harrell, T. (2004). Intercultural reentry of student and professionals: Theory and practice. In D. Landis, J.M Bennet, & M. J. Bennett (Eds.). Handbook of Intercultural Training (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Oberg, K (1960). Cultural shock: Adjustment to new cultural environments. Practical Anthropology, 7, 177-182
Paige, R. M. (1993). On the nature of intercultural experiences and intercultural education. In R. M. Paige (Ed.). Education for the intercultural experience. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press
Savicki, V. (2010). Implications of early sociocultural adaptation for study abroad students. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad XIX, 205-223.
Savicki, V., Adams, I., Wilde, A., & Binder, F. (2008). Intercultural development: Topics and sequences. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, XV, 111-126.
Savicki, V., Downing-Burnette, R., Heller, L., Binder, F., & Suntinger, W. (2004). Contrasts, changes, and correlates in actual and potential intercultural adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 28, 311-329.
Selby, R. (2008). Designing transformation in international education. In V. Savicki (Ed.), Developing intercultural competence and transformation (1 ed., pp. 1-10). Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Publishing.
Vande Berg, M., Paige, R. M., & Lou, K. H. (Eds.). Student Learning Abroad: What our students are learning, what they're not, and what we can do about it. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
Ward, C., Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock. (2 ed.) Philadelphia, PA: Routledge.
Ward, C. (2001). The A, B, Cs of acculturation. In D. Matsumoto (Ed.), Handbook of Culture and Psychology. (pp. 411-446). NY: Oxford University Press.
Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1999). The measurement of sociocultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23(4), 659-677.
Ward, C., Okura, Y., Kennedy, A., & Kojima, T. (1998). The u-curve on trial: A longitudinal study of psychological and sociocultural adjustment during cross-cultural transition. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22(3), 277-291.
Watson, D., Clark, L., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales .Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,54(6), 1063-1070.
Webb, M. W. (1983). Cross-cultural awareness: A framework for interaction. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 61(8), 498-500.
Westwood, M. J., Lawrence, W. S., & Paul, D. (1986). Preparing for re-entry; a program for the sojourning student. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling , 9, 221-230.